Correlation between the use of fertility drugs and ovarian cancer

Stanford University medical researchers conducted a study on the correlation between the use of fertility drugs and ovarian cancer. Their study, published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, concludes that the use of the fertility drugs, Pergonal and Serophene may increase the risk of ovarian cancer by three times. The lead author of the studies, Professor Alice Whittemore, stated, “Our finding in regard to fertility drugs is by no means certain. It is based on very small numbers and is really very tenuous.”

FDA Commissioner David Kessler would like the infertility drug manufacturers to disclose the study findings and offer a warning on the drug packages. He notes, “Even though the epidemiology study is still preliminary, women have a right to know what is known. We’re not looking to make more of this than there is.”

If you were a manufacturer of one of the drugs, would you voluntarily disclose the study information?

Sample Solution

Medical concepts

When working in the medical field, it is essential to have a vast knowledge of the guiding concepts and regulations in the field/ In this discussion board, you will address four medical concepts that have molded the medical field to what it is today.

Choose one of the following concepts (you can’t choose the same one as your assignment submission)

The Medical Record
AHIMA ( The American Health Information Management Association)
Joint Commission
HIPPA (The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996)
Write a description of the concept that answers the five wh questions.

WHO?, WHAT?, WHEN?, WHERE?, and WHY?

Objectives
Explain medical concepts

Sample Solution

Medical History

0800    1200

Temp

RR

HR

BP

O2

What lead to your client being in Peds? (Research the cause/disease process)

What treatment(s) is your client receiving?

What is the Erikson Stage of Development for your client? Give at least one example from your time with your client that shows their development stage. How does the stage of development impact the care given to your client?

What are some cultural consideration you noticed with your client and his/her family?

Sample Solution

A U.S. Manufacturer is developing a medical device

A U.S. Manufacturer is developing a medical device which is a Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent with an integrated delivery system.

A U.S. Manufacturer is developing a medical device which is a Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent with an integrated delivery system.
This medical device is indicated for improving coronary artery luminal diameter in patients with symptomatic heart disease due to atherosclerotic lesions ≤ 24 mm in length in native coronary arteries with ≥ 2.25 mm to ≤ 4.00 mm reference vessel diameters, using direct stenting or pre-dilatation interventional techniques.

The medical device and its integrated system are contraindicated for use in patients:
o Unable to receive antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant therapy,
o With known hypersensitivity to sirolimus, PEA III Ac Bz, cobalt, chromium, nickel, tungsten, or contrast media,

o Judged to have lesions preventing complete inflation of an angioplasty balloon or proper placement of a coronary stent or delivery system, including chronic total occlusions.

A. Research Task

A U.S. Manufacturer is developing a medical device which is a Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent with an integrated delivery system.
Identify the medical device in the FDA database and download its approval history. Information to look for should include:
 Labeling,
 Safety and effectiveness information,
 Clinical trials information,
 Any post-market supplements to date.

Sample Solution

The effect of COVID -19 pandemic

Do research on the effect of COVID -19 pandemic on this company. Answer the following questions in detail based on your research: How has the current COVID-19 pandemic aFfected the operations of this company? Do they have parts or inventory shortages? Do they have to shut down factories or warehouses? Do they reduce their production/service capacity? Do they shift production from one geographic location to another? Your answers must be factual, well-thought, and clear. You must clearly explain the timeline of events and the actions the company has taken thus far.

Sample Solution

State drug-testing laws

List and describe at least six employee drug-testing procedures you would implement to comply with state drug-testing laws. How would you ensure adherence to the procedures?
Briefly discuss your understanding of bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ), affirmative action preferences, and promotions. Then, identify at least four actions you would take to avoid employment law issues with these topics. Be specific.
The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is:
Review the purpose and types of background checks, bona fide occupational qualification, and affirmative action preferences.

Sample Solution

Evolutionary Medicine

Evolutionary medicine is not a field of science, like plant biology, microbiology, or biochemistry. Instead it is an approach that integrates evolutionary biology into healthcare and medicine. It is a rapidly growing field that relies on the concepts of evolutionary biology to understand, prevent, and treat disease. In this project you will select a health concern/disease and apply the concepts of evolutionary biology to your topic. This project will be written in a scientific format, like a scientific paper. Scientific papers are essential for compiling information or original research and distributing it to others.
Here are a few possible topics you can select for your Evolutionary Medicine Project; risky behavior in adolescents, obesity, binge eating, infanticide, obsession and social media, cardiovascular disease, self-induced vomiting, self-starvation in response to stress/fear etc.
pick a concise title for your paper. The title should be short, descriptive, and refer specifically to your project. For example, if you select obesity you would have a title like “The evolutionary aspect of obesity” or “The practicality of obesity from an evolutionary perspective.”
Introduction: This section provides background information on the project topic. This section will tell the reader what topic the paper will focus on and why it is important in society and healthcare. In this section you want to address the scope and the aims of the paper. Be sure to cite sources in this section of the paper as you will use data from other scientific studies and textbooks to provide the background on your topic. This section should be ~ ½ a page in length.
Mechanism: This section should provide sufficient information on the anatomy, physiology, and regulation of your topic. You will also need to discuss how the health concern/disease works to accomplish its function. We will focus on the mechanism in the human body as this is most relevant to healthcare and medicine. I would suggest having a figure in this section that focuses on the anatomy/physiology/regulation of your topic as this provides an easy way to relay a pathway/process to the reader. In this section you must cite your sources as you are not performing any original research on your topic. This section should be ~ ¾- 1 page in length.
Ontogeny/Development: In this section you will want to discuss how the health concern/disease develops in an individual. Be sure to describe the health concern/disease at life stages and the mechanism that controls its development. This section is different than your mechanisms section. In this section you want to address the developmental differences that are behind the issue. Again, this section will have a heavy focus on anatomy & physiology in humans. I would suggest having a figure on the ontogeny/development of your topic as this provides an easy way to relay a pathway/process to the reader. In this section you must cite your sources as you are not performing any original research on your topic. This section should be ~ ¾-1 page in length.
Adaptive Significance: In this section you want to address how the health concern/disease interacts with the environment to influence fitness in ways that explain the traits form. You want to focus on the usefulness of the health concern/disease and how it aids an organism in survival or provides an environmental advantage to improve fitness. Be sure to address why this concern/disease may have developed, what benefits it has to the organism, how it is

Sample Solution

Poverty and power, drug use and legalization

Reflect on the many different social problems that we have studied and discussed throughout the term, for example, poverty and power, drug use and legalization, institutional discrimination, survival of the family, prostitution and health, and unequal opportunism.
For our final discussion, think about what you have learned in terms of myths and facts.
Address the following in your initial post:

  • How were your personal biases challenged throughout this course?
  • What information was new to you, and how will that new information help you?
  • Lastly, select one concept that you learned in this course, and explain how you can apply it to your future career or educational path.

Sample Solution

Allergies: Penicillin

• Utilize the appropriate technology and/or references/resources, demonstrating accurate use, in order to access reliable data and information that support evidence-based practice in the care of diverse clients during pregnancy.
• Differentiate the various components of basic physiological needs as it relates to pregnancy and health practices, including but not limited to associated concepts of.
• Evaluate data and information gathered during client care, simulated scenarios, and/or case studies related to promoting nutritional health during pregnancy, nursing care strategies to address the common discomforts of pregnancy, essential components and standards of prenatal care, fetal growth and development stages in order to determine knowledge and wisdom gained through critical thought processes to optimize client outcomes and quality improvement.
• Demonstrate a basic understanding of communication practices necessary for client-centered care and interdisciplinary collaboration in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

Competency
Apply appropriate nursing care interventions for clients during pregnancy, labor, and birth.

Scenario
You are a registered nurse (RN) working in a Women’s OB/GYN Clinic. Elizabeth Jones, 37 years old, presents to the prenatal clinic after missing her last 2 menstrual cycles. Her home pregnancy test was positive. An ultrasound at the clinic confirms pregnancy. Gestational age is calculated to be 10 weeks. An initial assessment of Ms. Jones’s medical and obstetrical history is as follows.

Obstetric/Gynecologic (OB/GYN) history: Uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery at 39.2 weeks (3 years ago); Cesarean section x 1 at 37.5 weeks for non-reassuring fetal heart tones (1.5 years ago); abnormal Papanicolau (PAP) smear x2, + human papilloma virus (HPV), colposcopy within normal limits

Medical history: Chronic hypertension (HTN) x 5 years;

Allergies: Penicillin

Social history:
• (+) tobacco, “occasional” per client (pt), <5 per/day currently, has smoked “off and on” for 15 years • (+) cocaine use, states she has not used any cocaine/drugs for > 1 year; (-) alcohol use
• Abusive partner with first pregnancy, states she has a new partner x 4 years
• Depression, currently not taking meds for treatment (tx)

Medications: Prenatal vitamins; Labetalol 200mg BID;

Family history: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (mother); HTN and heart disease (father); breast cancer (maternal grandmother, deceased)

Write a two to three-page analysis of this scenario that answers the following questions:

  1. What should the nurse consider related to caring for a client with a history of domestic abuse, drug use, sexually transmitted diseases and depression?
  2. Document the considerations of yourself as the professional nurse in regards to self-awareness; be aware of attitudes, values and beliefs that you hold related to clients from different social backgrounds so that care is not affected negatively.
  3. What conditions are in Mrs. Jones history that would cause concern during pregnancy, labor, and birth?
  4. What concerns should be discussed with Ms. Jones before she leaves her appointment?

Sample Solution

The drug RhoGAM

Case Study: A client had an SVD (spontaneous vaginal delivery) today. The labor and delivery nurse gives you a shift report and notes the client is RH Negative and her infant is RH Positive.
Discuss the drug RhoGAM (immune globulin), including:
Route
Nursing Implications
Indications for Use
Contraindications for Use
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Sample Solution