potential energy (PE)

Using a real-world example that relates to your major area of study or work experience, find at least two places where potential energy (PE) is added into the system to keep things in motion. Based on your observations, make an estimation of the energy that is being added into the system.

Sample Solution

Circuit Analysis

Circuit Analysis – Week #3 Lab Capacitors and Inductors

This Lab has two parts. Please complete both.

Part 1: Build the following circuit in Multisim. Use a square wave and 10 Vp in the function generator.

Calculate the L/R time constant (The ratio of inductance in henry with the resistance in ohms is the time constant in seconds). What is the time constant (L/R)? • Use transient analysis to observe both the input and output of the RL voltage divider. Make a printout of the output. Initially the voltage across the inductor jumps to 20 V, there after the voltage decays exponentially to 0. • Use the cursors to find the amount of time it takes to decay to 36.8% (1/e) of the original (20V) voltage. What is the measured time constant? Show simulation and measurements. • This time should equal the time constant of the circuit (L/R), is it? Sometimes we use 1/3 as an approximation to 1/e. • How accurate is this approximation in percent? Show calculated versus measured accuracy.
Part 2: An inductor has a small amount of capacitance in parallel to the inductance. To illustrate the effect that this has, build the following circuit.

Run this circuit using the transient analysis (run the analysis for about 1 μ Sec). Now remove the capacitor and again run the analysis.

Plot both runs and then describe the difference between runs. • This is one reason that inductors are used much less frequently than capacitors and resistors. What is the difference?
Rules for lab submissions: 1. The lab document must be a Word document. PDF files are NOT accepted. 2. All screenshots must be included. 3. All Multisim screenshots must include the date/time stamp. See TOOLS AND TEMPLATES for the procedure to display the date and time. 4. Any and all Multisim files must be submitted. 5. Any equations used must be typed in Word. Copy and paste of equations from outside sources is prohibited. 6. No graphics are allowed in the Word document other than screenshots of circuits from Multisim and hardware if applicable, with the date/time stamp. 7. The lab template should be used. Specifically, it is brought to your attention that a summary MUST be provided explaining the results of the labs, the relationship of the results to expected results, and any challenges encountered. 8. Hardware portion of labs should include screenshots of the assembled circuit with your name and student GID number written on paper next to the circuit. There should be screenshots of the instrument readings with the date and time stamp on lower right corner clearly shown. See example below.

Any violation of the submission rules above will result in a grade of 1.

Lab 3 Grading Rubric

Demonstrate understanding of Capacitors and their functionality 10 points

Calculated results 10 points

Circuit design in Multisim 10 points

Measurement of time constant and decay of circuit 1 20 points

Transient analysis of circuit 2 20 points

Sample Solution

Identifying Errors in Code

  1. ( b2 == b1 ) And ( a1 <= a2 )
  2. if ( a1 == 4 );
    System.out.println( “a1 equals 4” );
    3 if ( b2 == true )
    System.out.println( “b2 is true” );
  3. if ( b1 == true )
    System.out.println( “b1 is true” );
    else
    System.out.println( “b1 is false” );
    else if ( a1 < 100 )
    System.out.println( “a1 is <=100” );
  4. if ( b2 )
    System.out.println( “b2 is true” );
    else if ( a1 50 )
    )
    System.out.println( “a1 50” );
    )
    else
    System.out.println( “none of the above” );
    explanation

Sample Solution

Different forms of physician reimbursement

Read The Report of The National Commission on Physician Payment Reform pages 9-11, and 14-1
Briefly describe the different forms of physician reimbursement. The National Commission adopted twelve specific recommendations for reforming physician payment. Choose three
of the recommendations explanations and justifications that you agree or disagree. Explain and support your stance.

Sample Solution

Tracing and Higher Order using Lambda

A recursive, but not higher order function viral-growth that returns a list of the minute-by-minute growth when one person spreads a video to three other people per minute:

(define (viral-growth mins ppl)

(if (= 0 mins)

‘()

(cons (* 3 ppl) (viral-growth (- mins 1) (* 3 ppl)))))

(viral-growth 4 1)

‘(3 9 27 81)

And a higher order function repeated that returns another function, f, applied count times:

(define (repeated f count)

(lambda (x)

(if (= count 0)

x

(f ((repeated f (- count 1)) x)))))

((repeated add-one 3) 1)

4

For this final lab question, rewrite viral-growth so that it can be passed to repeated and so that the count variable of repeated (rather than a mins variable in viral-growth) determines how many minutes of viral growth pass. Rewrite viral-growth to accept only one argument, the number of people who start the spread, and to return a lambda that accepts a list argument.

(define (viral-growth ppl)

(lambda (ls)

… your code goes here …

If you rewrite viral-growth correctly, you should be able to pass it to repeated as follows:

((repeated (viral-growth 1) 4) ‘())

‘(3 9 27 81)

Sample Solution

Externalities associated with electricity generation and use.

Based on the Gies and WNA articles on Energy and Electricity, please answer the following:

  1. Briefly summarize some of the main externalities associated with electricity generation and use. Are the externalities real, pecuniary, both?
  2. Compare the costs and benefits of (a) business regulations vs. (b) taxes vs. (c) subsidizing alternative energy sources as a solution to externalities from electricity.
  3. When considering policies aimed at correcting the externalities, is the goal of these policies to eliminate pollution? Explain

Sample Solution

Circuit Analysis

Circuit Analysis – Week #3 Lab Capacitors and Inductors

This Lab has two parts. Please complete both.

Part 1: Build the following circuit in Multisim. Use a square wave and 10 Vp in the function generator.

Calculate the L/R time constant (The ratio of inductance in henry with the resistance in ohms is the time constant in seconds). What is the time constant (L/R)? • Use transient analysis to observe both the input and output of the RL voltage divider. Make a printout of the output. Initially the voltage across the inductor jumps to 20 V, there after the voltage decays exponentially to 0. • Use the cursors to find the amount of time it takes to decay to 36.8% (1/e) of the original (20V) voltage. What is the measured time constant? Show simulation and measurements. • This time should equal the time constant of the circuit (L/R), is it? Sometimes we use 1/3 as an approximation to 1/e. • How accurate is this approximation in percent? Show calculated versus measured accuracy.
Part 2: An inductor has a small amount of capacitance in parallel to the inductance. To illustrate the effect that this has, build the following circuit.

Run this circuit using the transient analysis (run the analysis for about 1 μ Sec). Now remove the capacitor and again run the analysis.

Plot both runs and then describe the difference between runs. • This is one reason that inductors are used much less frequently than capacitors and resistors. What is the difference?
Rules for lab submissions: 1. The lab document must be a Word document. PDF files are NOT accepted. 2. All screenshots must be included. 3. All Multisim screenshots must include the date/time stamp. See TOOLS AND TEMPLATES for the procedure to display the date and time. 4. Any and all Multisim files must be submitted. 5. Any equations used must be typed in Word. Copy and paste of equations from outside sources is prohibited. 6. No graphics are allowed in the Word document other than screenshots of circuits from Multisim and hardware if applicable, with the date/time stamp. 7. The lab template should be used. Specifically, it is brought to your attention that a summary MUST be provided explaining the results of the labs, the relationship of the results to expected results, and any challenges encountered. 8. Hardware portion of labs should include screenshots of the assembled circuit with your name and student GID number written on paper next to the circuit. There should be screenshots of the instrument readings with the date and time stamp on lower right corner clearly shown. See example below.

Any violation of the submission rules above will result in a grade of 1.

Lab 3 Grading Rubric

Demonstrate understanding of Capacitors and their functionality 10 points

Calculated results 10 points

Circuit design in Multisim 10 points

Measurement of time constant and decay of circuit 1 20 points

Transient analysis of circuit 2 20 points

Removal of capacitor and simulation 10 points

Analysis of results 10 points

Lab Report (includes table, measurement with proper units, screenshots, APA guidelines)

Sample Solution

Circuit Analysis

Circuit Analysis – Week #3 Lab Capacitors and Inductors

This Lab has two parts. Please complete both.

Part 1: Build the following circuit in Multisim. Use a square wave and 10 Vp in the function generator.

Calculate the L/R time constant (The ratio of inductance in henry with the resistance in ohms is the time constant in seconds). What is the time constant (L/R)? • Use transient analysis to observe both the input and output of the RL voltage divider. Make a printout of the output. Initially the voltage across the inductor jumps to 20 V, there after the voltage decays exponentially to 0. • Use the cursors to find the amount of time it takes to decay to 36.8% (1/e) of the original (20V) voltage. What is the measured time constant? Show simulation and measurements. • This time should equal the time constant of the circuit (L/R), is it? Sometimes we use 1/3 as an approximation to 1/e. • How accurate is this approximation in percent? Show calculated versus measured accuracy.
Part 2: An inductor has a small amount of capacitance in parallel to the inductance. To illustrate the effect that this has, build the following circuit.

Run this circuit using the transient analysis (run the analysis for about 1 μ Sec). Now remove the capacitor and again run the analysis.

Plot both runs and then describe the difference between runs. • This is one reason that inductors are used much less frequently than capacitors and resistors. What is the difference?
Rules for lab submissions: 1. The lab document must be a Word document. PDF files are NOT accepted. 2. All screenshots must be included. 3. All Multisim screenshots must include the date/time stamp. See TOOLS AND TEMPLATES for the procedure to display the date and time. 4. Any and all Multisim files must be submitted. 5. Any equations used must be typed in Word. Copy and paste of equations from outside sources is prohibited. 6. No graphics are allowed in the Word document other than screenshots of circuits from Multisim and hardware if applicable, with the date/time stamp. 7. The lab template should be used. Specifically, it is brought to your attention that a summary MUST be provided explaining the results of the labs, the relationship of the results to expected results, and any challenges encountered. 8. Hardware portion of labs should include screenshots of the assembled circuit with your name and student GID number written on paper next to the circuit. There should be screenshots of the instrument readings with the date and time stamp on lower right corner clearly shown. See example below.

Any violation of the submission rules above will result in a grade of 1.

Lab 3 Grading Rubric

Demonstrate understanding of Capacitors and their functionality 10 points

Calculated results 10 points

Circuit design in Multisim 10 points

Measurement of time constant and decay of circuit 1 20 points

Transient analysis of circuit 2 20 points

Removal of capacitor and simulation 10 points

Analysis of results 10 points

Lab Report (includes table, measurement with proper units, screenshots, APA guidelines)

Sample Solution

Radio waves

Using radio waves to peer through thick layers of ice
1 Antarctica may seem like nothing but ice, but those glaciers cover mountains as tall as the Rockies and a lake almost as big as the state of Connecticut. And the ice sheet itself holds enough water to raise sea level by an estimated 190 feet (58 m) around the world. Radio glaciologists, like Dustin Schroeder of Stanford University, use radar to study the ice and get a glimpse of the hidden landscape below. But they don’t do it by digging down through the ice. They do it by flying high above.
2 Getting a glimpse beneath the icy surface is about far more than exploration. What glacial ice is made of, how cold or warm it is, and whether it is sitting on top of water or bedrock can all dramatically affect how the ice will behave. And how ice behaves can be the difference between some minor melting and a catastrophic collapse.
3 It may be hard to picture, but Antarctica’s massive ice sheets flow over Earth’s surface. Some glaciers move easily over fine sediment and liquid water. Other glaciers move slowly over surfaces such as hard bedrock or steep cliffs. Ice sheets with thick edges flow more quickly than thinner ones. Even the structure of the ice crystals at the tiniest scales can change how massive bodies of ice will flow. So getting measurements of how thick an ice sheet is and the kind of material it’s sitting on is important for figuring out how quickly it might move or change.
4 Just as important as how a particular ice sheet moves is how it melts. Every year, growth and melting occur with the seasons. When climate change causes additional melting, it can be too extreme to gain back. Ice shelves, with warm ocean water touching their bases, can melt particularly quickly. And not all melting happens at the surface or the base. Some water ends up stored in pores within the layers of ice itself. Getting an idea of when and how an ice sheet might melt means getting a look inside.
5 Many of the traditional tools we use for mapping are designed for studying features at the surface—like a detailed picture of the frosting decorations on a cake. But how do you get a look inside? Scientists can’t just take a mile-thick slice of a glacier, so they depend on tools like radar. Radar technology measures the time it takes for a signal to reach a surface and bounce back to the sensor. It’s similar to timing an echo. Scientists use this timing to calculate distance.
6 Radio glaciologists send bursts of radio waves that travel at the speed of light. The waves can pass through solid objects like rock and ice before they bounce back. The process is so fast that the device sending the signal and the antenna receiving it can be part of the same instrument. The whole system can even take measurements from a plane flying over the landscape. The result—a radargram—provides a view beneath the surface in the path of the plane. According to Schroeder, the radar reflections pick up tiny changes in density or materials in the layers of ice and provide a profile of the continental bedrock below. The radar can’t look through water because the reflection of the signal is too strong. But it is a valuable tool for seeing if liquid water is present, even in tiny amounts.
7 Schroeder gets excited about using radar to study ice not just because of what he gets to study, but also because he gets to be a part of developing the tools to study it. Whereas many other areas of science have been around for centuries, radio glaciology feels young by comparison. Researchers are still figuring out exactly which questions to ask, so the people designing instruments and the people posing the questions have to work together very closely. Sometimes, they are even the same people. Because of his passion for scientific instruments, Schroeder thinks this crossover between science and engineering is an exciting place to be.

8 Unlike geologist who might hike or drive over the the surface, radio glaciologists depend on pilots and airplanes. They have to work as a team and create sophisticated flight plans before they ever leave the ground, so they can’t easily change their routes. They spend months studying maps, coordinating with other research teams, and deciding the best possible path to fly for the data they want to collect. They face harsh weather conditions and limited time, so they put a lot of effort into making the most of every minute in the air. That might mean having back-up plans for bad weather, installing replacement parts mid-flight, or even coming up with unexpected repairs in the moment. But most of the time it means preparing in advance to make the hours in the air as uneventful as possible.

Sample Solution

Pyroelectricity.

  1. what are some kinds of pyroelectric and piezoelectric structure
  2. what kind of chemicals gives pyroelectric aand piezoelectric
  3. a. crystaline vs pyroelectric

b. crystaline vs piezoelectric structures

  1. a. what kind of polymer gives pyroelectric and piezoeletric

b. pyroelectrtric (ac or dc current

Sample Solution