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Composite material failure in Aircraft

Composite material failure in Aircraft

Project description
it will be based on composite fibre materials used in aircraft, discussing briefly its failure. when carbon fibre materials fails as metal used in aircraft can be

studied but carbon fibre fails at very unusual way. so that what we need to cover.
I need this sections in my essay.

1) Executive Summary : will talk about history of materials used in aircraft, then introducing carbon fibre used in aircraft. how is it different from metals used in

aircraft.

2) Introduction : talk about carbon fibre use in todays aircraft then give examples like boieng 787 and airbus a380 in making.
Aim of the assignment will be :
#Identify current and projected trends in fibre composite use in commercial,
general aviation and amateur-built aircraft;
Identify common aircraft structures and components in which composites are
used;
Discuss the load behaviour and reparability of composite structures;

3) FIBRE COMPOSITE USE IN AIRCRAFT PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE.
4) COMPOSITE BEHAVIOUR UNDER LOAD
Discuss tension and shear stress, compression, bending, fatigue and others.
5) BEHAVIOUR OF COMPOSITES IN HIGH-LOAD AND IMPACT SITUATIONS
6) REPAIRABILITY OF COMPOSITE STRUCTURES
7) CONCLUSION
8) REFERENCING.

1)    Executive Summary :
2)    INTRODUCTION :  Discuss about carbon fibre use in aircraft and issues associated with its use.
3)    TYPICAL AIRCRAFT FIBRE COMPOSITES (Structural use of carbon fibre in aircraft  how its made.)
4)    FIBRE COMPOSITE USE IN AIRCRAFT – PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE
5)    COMPOSITE BEHAVIOUR UNDER LOAD ( Tension and shear stress, compression and fatigue) please include 1 case study
6)    BEHAVIOUR OF COMPOSITES IN HIGH-LOAD AND IMPACT SITUATIONS
7)    REPAIRABILITY OF COMPOSITE STRUCTURES
8)    CONCLUSION.

8 REFERENCING

8.1 The Harvard System

This system consists of two elements:
1.    A brief reference is given in the text of your work.

2.    Full details of the reference are provided at the end in the form of a Reference or Bibliography.

8.1.1 Guidelines for Referencing within Your Text

The basic feature of this referencing system consists of the last name of the author(s) and the date of publication of the work. For example:

(Smith 1999)
(Jones & Smith 1970)

For encyclopaedias (either print or CD ROM) it is sometimes difficult to determine the author of an article. In this case give the name of the encyclopaedia and the

publication date. For example:

(World Book Encyclopaedia 1998)
(Webster’s Dictionary of Quotation 1986)

For a web page on the Internet, if you cannot identify the author then use the name of the site as your reference. Sometimes it is also difficult to identify the year

of publication. If this is the case, then simply use a question mark in the year. For example:

(CNN 199?)

When ideas have been paraphrased or summarised by not quoted directly the reference should be placed at the end of the sentence. For example:

It has been argued that wombats can make great pets (Smith 1999).

When the author’s name appears as part of a sentence you only need to provide the year of publication in brackets. For example:

Smith (1999) argues that wombats can make great pets.

If you make reference to a specific part of a book or article, particularly if you have made a direct quotation, you need to provide the page numb
as well. Don’t forget to include the quotation marks around the text you are quoting. For example:

“Wombats, wombats, my kingdom for a wombat!” (Smith 1999, p. 63).

For larger quotations it is allowable to indent the text being quoted. However avoid quoting large chunks of text as your supervisors wish to hear your ideas not the

ideas of others. For example:

Smith (1999, p. 29) argues:

What a funny old fellow is Humphery. He gets in all manner of strife. He really leads and amazing life and honey’s his favourite fare. Which is hardly so very

surprising, he’s really an amazing old bear. What a funny old fellow is Humphery. Humphery the fun loving bear.

8.1.2 Guidelines for Creating a List of References

At the end of your written work you need to provide a list of the sources you used. This is called a Reference if you only provide a list of the works you actually

used or quoted. A list of all works whether they were used by you or not is called Bibliography.

In a Reference you need to provide the reader with enough information to allow them to find the same work that you used. At the very minimum you need to provide:
a.    author’s surname and initial(s);

b.    year of publication (in brackets);

c.    title of the work;

d.    publisher;

e.    place of publication.

This may vary depending upon the type of resource (book, a newspaper article, CD ROM web page etc).

A reference list should always be in alphabetical order. Examples are shown below.

Book References: For books you need to provide the author, the year, the title of the book (in italics), the publisher and the place of publication. For example:

Smith, H. 1999, Wombats I have known (Sydney, Collins). Shipman, M.D. 1972, The Limitations of Social Research (London, Longman).

Periodical References: For periodicals (such as Time, National Geographic etc.) you need to provide the author, the year, the title of the

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article, the name of the periodical (in italics), the volume number and the page number(s). For example:

Jones, H. 1998 “The life and times of Walter Wombat” Australian Geographic, 18, pp. 12-15.

Musgrave, F. 1973 “Power and the Integrated Curriculum”, Journal of Curriculum Studies, v.1, pp 3-12.

Measor, L. 1983, “Gender and the sciences: pupils’ gender-based conceptions of school subjects”, in Hammersley and Hargreaves, 1983, pp 171-191.

(Hammersley and Hargreaves would then have a separate entry as a book).

Newspaper article references: For newspapers you need to provide the author, the year, the title of the article, the name of the newspaper (in italics), the date and

the page number(s). For example:

Jones, H. 1999, “Wombats on parade”, Sydney Morning Herald, 1st March, p. 12.

Web page (Internet) references: For web pages you need to provide the author, the date, the title (in italics), the words online in brackets to indicate that it is

stored and retrieved on a computer, the name of your Internet browser (for example Netscape of Explorer) and the page’s full web address or URL. For example:

Smith, H. 1999, Wombats of the Future (online), retrieved via Netscape. www.wombat.com.au/wombats/smith.html

8.2 The Vancouver or Notation Method (Footnote/Endnote Referencing System)

The quotation is followed by a reference number. The quotations are numbered sequentially and the numbers appear directly after the quotation. If you are using

footnotes, the reference would appear at the end of the page. If you are using endnotes, the reference will appear at the end of a section or chapter, or even at the

end of the report.

Example:

“In your reading for business law research essays, you are usually required to document the relevant legal principles, statutes and cases.”1

The footnote at the bottom of the page, or the endnote in the reference or bibliography at the end of the dissertation would look like:

1.    Crosling, G. & Murphy, H. How to Study Business Law: Reading Writing and Exams. Butterworths, Sydney, 1994. p81.

13

If you are talking about a general argument put forward by an author it is noted as:

Elbow1 outlines his theory on free writing techniques as…

The footnote / endnote would be:

1.    P. Elbow, Writing with Power: Techniques for Mastering the Writing Process, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1981.

If you want to refer to a number of authors at the same time:

Elbow1, Harris2, and Krashen3 outline theories and approaches to writing. The footnote / endnote that would appear would be:

1.    P. Elbow, Writing with Power: Techniques for Mastering the Writing Process, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1981.

2.    J. Harris, Introducing Writing, Penguin, London, 1993.

3.    S. Krashen, Writing Research: Theory and Applications, Pergammon, Oxford, 1984.

If you have already made a reference to a text in your writing then you write the footnote or endnote in full only once and use the surname so the reader can refer to

the first citation for full details:

1.    P. Elbow, Writing with Power: Techniques for Mastering the Writing Process, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1981.

2.    J. Harris, Introducing Writing, Penguin, London, 1993.

3.    Elbow, p200

8.3 Referencing – General Notes

The Harvard System is normally the easiest to implement; but not normally used for engineering based reports. If you have to insert a reference into your part written

dissertation, then you have to renumber all of the subsequent references if you are using the Notation (Vancouver) Method. This is not so with the Harvard System. That

said, word processing packages can automatically number references.

The Notation (Vancouver) Method is usually used in engineering literature, but one must be extra careful when you have many references to make. The footnote option can

prove problematic, particularly if you are shuffling around text or inserting graphics into your part finished dissertation. This is because when you do so, you may

upset the flow of text, and hence references, on several subsequent pages, upsetting all of your footnotes. If you do choose to use the Notation Method, then use the

endnote

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