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CVP Analysis—Ethical Issues

Mark Ting desperately wants his proposed new product, DNA-diamond, to be accepted by top management. DNA-diamond is a piece of jewelry that contains the DNA of a boy- or girlfriend, spouse, or other loved one. Top management will not approve this product in view of its high break-even point.

Mark knows that if he can reduce the fixed costs in his proposal, then the break-even point will be reduced to a level that top management finds acceptable. Working with a friend in the company’s finance department, Mark finds ways to credibly misstate the estimated fixed costs of producing DNA-diamonds below those that any objective person would estimate.

Mark knows that if the product is successful (and he is certain that it will be), then top management will not find out about the understatement of fixed costs. Mark believes that this product, once it is successful, will benefit the shareholders and employees of the company.

Required:

Are Mark’s actions ethical? Explain.

Sample Solution

rthermore, Charles Goring criticised Lombroso’s theory that criminal’s physical appearances differentiated them from the non-criminals. He stated that ‘’…he did not look beyond prison walls…physical features he attributed…prisoners…found throughout…entire population’’ . Lombroso’s reliance on physical and biological characters including illnesses certain individuals suffered from, enabled him to categorise ‘criminals’ – this could be over-simplistic. As well as this, Lombroso’s research was mostly based on individuals from one place, Sicily – which meant his theory would have been narrow, biased and vague as his research was not extended. Goring had compared three thousand criminals with a similar sized group of non-criminals, i.e. students and soldiers. He found no physical nor mental characteristics which were only unique to soldiers – but he concluded that criminals tended to be less intelligent and were physically smaller in comparison to a non -offender, ‘’If we select… the one who is the smallest in stature, the most defective in intelligence…compare him with criminals we find that he approximates more closely to our criminal population.” Goring’s research was narrow in itself – and lacking a wider research therefore making his research biased and outdated. He did not examine all the environmental factors which could have rationalised each criminal behaviour instead of focusing solely on their family traits. Goring also failed to acknowledge that some of his ‘non-criminals’ could have be un-convicted criminals – therefore making his theory less reliable and unsound. Psychological criminology is ‘’a set of theories which focus on the personality…within an individual’s mind…why crime is committed’’ Sigmund Freud’s work of psychoanalytical theories examined how the conscious and subconscious mind from a traumatic experience would lead towards aggressive behaviour i.e. Peter Sutcliffe’s killing spree in the 1970s. Freud divided the mind into three parts, 1) the subconscious id – this controlled the basic and instinctual behaviour and aimed to seek pleasure, 2) super-ego (source of guilt and conscience) and finally, the conscious ego – which balances the id and super-ego. Freud therefore concluded that deviant behaviour was due to the super-ego not being fully developed and therefore giving the id too much in an individual’s mind – this is seen in Peter Sutcliffe’s behaviour due to his traumatic experiences and his ego, it resulted in him committing multiple crimes. On the other hand, John Bowlby merely focused on maternal deprivation and how throughout a child’s early stage, they were either rejected/physically separated from the mother – influencing the urge to commit crime as there was no guidance. Psychoanalytical theories can be criticised as they cannot be fully empirically tested by research, as they focus on the unconscious desires within one’s mind as a cause of crime and the
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