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“Data Changes How NFL Teams Play the Game and How Fans See It”

It is important to understand what information systems are and why they are essential for running and managing a business. It is also important to understand the different systems that support different groups or levels of management. In addition, digital technology and the Internet play a key role in executing major business processes in the enterprise. Also, it is important to understand the ethical, social, and political issues raised by information systems.
The case studies below provide you with an opportunity to critically analyze events that are taking place in real-life businesses. This helps to develop your critical thinking and research skills as you research each of these scenarios.
For this assignment, review four case studies—two from Chapter 1 and two from Chapter 2. Then, in an essay, evaluate the studies and respond to each of the questions below, using both critical thinking and theory as well as supporting documentation.
In Chapter 1, read the case study “UPS Competes Globally with Information Technology” on pages 23–24 of the textbook. Then, answer the questions below.
• How does UPS use information systems technology to achieve its strategic goals of being more efficient and customer oriented?
• What would happen if the automated package tracking system was not available?
• Discuss how globalization has “flattened” the world.
In Chapter 2, read the case study “Data Changes How NFL Teams Play the Game and How Fans See It” on pages 52–53 of the textbook. The, address the prompts below.
• Analyze how information systems are transforming business.
• What types of systems does the NFL and its teams use?
• What is the role that these systems play in improving both operations and decision-making?

Sample Solution

, however Fielder’s description of how situational factors affect the leadership style required for the situation is extremely useful in understanding the fundamentals of leadership (Pettinger, 2007). Chelladurai in his Multi Dimensional Model of Leadership, expands on much of Fiedler’s theory but in a continuum based approach, in which the leader can adapt their leadership style to fit the situation (Chelladurai and Madella, 2006). Chelladurai’s theory is taken from sports psychology but can be applied to an organisational scenario. It provides a much more empirical categorisation of task structure, clearly differentiating a plethora of situations that require certain leadership styles for success. Chealldurai found three characteristics that affect the leadership style required for a situation, called antecedents, they mainly expand upon Fiedler’s situational factors and leader – member relations and ultimately affect how a leader should behave towards a situation. The first are situational characteristics, the environment in which the leader must perform, the second are leader characteristics, the experience, personal qualities and skills of the leader, and the third are member characteristics, the motivation, skill and experience levels of group members (Chelladurai and Madella, 2006). The situational characteristics and member characteristics have a required behaviour to ensure maximum group performance, they also have a preferred behaviour to ensure the satisfaction of group members, if the leaders actual behaviour matches both the required behaviour and preferred behaviour of the situation the consequence is maximum group performance and satisfaction. However, if the group are not performing and achieving goals or are not satisfied or both, then the leader is able to amend their actual behaviour to improve this. Leaders able to monitor performance and satisfaction, and understand what is required to amend the situation will achieve optimum group performance in Chelladurai’s model. The one limitation of Chealldurai’s model is that it assumes the leader is in a position of complete positional power over the group, and can implement any leadership style of their choosing without constraints. Positional power is the authority and influence a leader has over a group, if the leader has positional power, they will be able to implement the leadership style they best see fit for the situation. Positional power cannot be measured or quantified, making it highly ambiguous and hard for a leader to understand whether they have it or how then can gain it. It becomes the responsibility of the organisation to have policies in place to provide leaders with some positional power, usually by establishing a clear hierarchal structure. By establishing a hierarchy, the lea
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