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Design of a project.

Scenario You work for a multi-disciplinary firm and have been appointed to the pre-contract team of surveyors at stage 2 – Concept Design of a project. The client proposes to construct a development of eight single-storey steel-framed light industrial units. This will be on an edge-of-town site with a total GIFA of 1.850m: and with associated provision for loading and parking. The site is located in the North-East of England. There are existing buildings on the site that require demolition. An early ground investigation report has identified areas of contamination to the north west corner of the site.
The units will be for let and the client requires the buildings to be low maintenance in order to minimise running costs and to ensure a good return on their inkestment over the long term
Task You are the Quantity Surveyor assigned to this project and you are scheduled to have a project briefing meeting with the client.
Write a briefing note for your client that critically analyses the following
• the importance of establishing the client’s requirements for the development early in the design process:
(approximately 500 words)
• the need to consider site and design factors and their impact on the cost of construction in the short and long term,
(approximately 750 words)
• early cost control methods used to establish the cost limit for the project including recommendation of a suitable approach (approximately 750 words)
Note Include sketches and calculations to aid explanation and provide a visual understanding of the site and design factors that could affect the cost of construction.
Clearly state your assumptions and provide examples to support your explanation or discussion.

Sample Solution

Critical criminology has gained traction in recent years, with its devotion to questioning the definitions of crime and measurements of official statistics, its critical view of agents, systems, and institutions of social control, and the connections with social justice and policy change (Carrington & Hogg, 2002). Theories of critical criminology are rooted in the structure of society, focusing on power systems and inequality. This paper will focus on labeling theory and crimes of the powerful, as they have a certain dichotomy regarding public vs. private criminality. With labeling theory, those in power have the authority to decide what is the “norm” and what is the “other,” ostracizing the “other” from the rest of society. The stigmatization of public shaming for the common citizen is carried out in all aspects of public life – the labeled individual is looked down on by family, peers, community, and employers, and it is very hard for them to shake the label (Denver et al., 2017; Kroska et al., 2016). Regarding crimes of the powerful, those in power have the privilege to escape stigmatization and consequences of illegal actions. Those in power protect their own through deciding what is illegal or not, and deciding the consequences for illegal actions. These crimes occur in private and are often underreported and under prosecuted, allowing the powerful to escape consequences. Critical analysis will address these dichotomies, challenging theoretical assumptions and criminal justice practices to advocate for structural change. Labeling Theory ​Background Labeling theory discusses the structural inequalities within society that explain criminality. It can be traced back to Mead’s theory of symbolic interactionism in 1934, which discusses the importance of language regarding informing social action through processes of constructing, interpreting, and transmitting meaning (Denver et al., 2017, p. 666). From there, labeling theory was further developed with Lemert’s distinction between primary and secondary deviance in 1951, which explained how deviance of an individual begins and continues (Thompson, 2014). Finally, and perhaps most influentially, we have Becker’s labeling theory of deviance in 1963, which is the version of the theory that will be guiding this discussion in the essay (Paternoster & Bachman, 2017). In Becker’s labeling theory, he describes crime as a social construct:

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