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Final Urban Health Report

Order Description
The Final Report (3250words) carries a weight of 65% of the module’s total marks.
You may prepare and write the Final Report on the same urban health issue you chose for the Urban Health Profile, Assessment Component 01. (please see the attachment with the feddback for urban health profile. My topic was The Urban Health Issue of HIV in the Borough of Croydon among the Black African Population age 15 – 44. Now, the 2nd one is REPORT. We are free to chose the same topic but have to be carefull about the guidlines. As I didnt follow the determinants and my physical observation data presentation wasnot appropriate. please the attachment for the first component profile.
The following is what you should consider for this assessment component:

The high lighted points must need to be covered

a) Report Title – should include the health issue, target population group and the area. London based papers should look at the boroughs; elsewhere you can just look at the whole city as one study unit.

b) Introduction – brief overview of the urban health issue and signposting to show the sections you will include in the work.

c) Rationale of why this is an urban health issue – identify and explain the evidence including epidemiological data you will use to show why this is an urban health problem.

d) Explain the urban context and determinants that you will look at to explain the impact on the health issue. If you are looking at the same topic and borough as before, you can draw on the Urban Health Profile. Remember to draw on the wider context, including London if you are looking at a London borough.

e) Identify and explain the public health consequences and implications of this urban health problem that impact on the general populations, on the individual and on the health services.
f) Explain what strategies and interventions for addressing this urban health problem you will critique in the paper.

g) What recommendations and conclusions you expect to make?

marks will be awarded as follows:

a) Content Relevance: reflecting the module’s learning outcomes 30%

b) Analysis and Critical Thinking: synthesis, analysis, interpretation, discussion and critique 50%

c) Research: seeking relevant literature and referencing*, structure, writing and presentation 20%

***Students will fail the assessments if their work is not correctly referenced in the Harvard method, both in the main text and in References list. Please see the relevant section of your student handbook concerning referencing procedures and grading criteria.
please follow the guidelines
please read the following carefully.
Component 2 (Essay) Tips and Comments
1) Title: The essay is an analysis of an urban health issue; hence it might be more
appropriate to have the title as: “An Analysis of ………….” Provide a complete title
rather than ‘blank’ and incomplete statements like Diabetes in Islington. Make sure you
include the urban health issue, the population group and the borough / city in the title of
your work.

2) Introduction – explain to readers what the essay is studying / analysing and signpost the
work, letting readers know what they expect to see in the rest of the work (explain the
structure of your work, outlining what is covered in each section of the essay).

3) Rationale, Urban Context and Epidemiology of the Urban Health Issue – Begin by
justifying your choice of the health issue, the chosen population group and the city /
London borough chosen for the analysis. Then move on to explain and justify why what
you are studying / writing about is an urban health issue. Note that prevalence data,
trends and high costs to the NHS are outcomes which do not explain why the health
issue you are studying is an urban health issue. For most of the issues we are studying,
looking at the urban characteristics, context and environment is a better way to help you
explain why something is an urban health issue. Growth of many cities is associated with
distinctive and diverse population groups, high density of socio-economic activities,
areas of high deprivation, concentration of low socio-economic families, increased
obesogenic environments, high density of transport networks, ect. These characteristics
are most common in inner cities and give rise to the ‘urban health penalty’. Thus, the
complex interaction and influence of the urban environment on health inequalities,
deprivation, low socio-economic status, marginalisation and urban vulnerability lead to
many negative health outcomes such as high levels of childhood obesity, high levels of
type 2 diabetes, high levels of cardiovascular diseases in population groups usually
living in poorer neighbourhoods. Nevertheless, cities can also provide better
opportunities for rewarding employment, accessing public services, health promotion
and health service provision. This leads to the ‘urban health advantage’ in cities. Thus, in
most cases, to explain why something is an urban health issue, you have to link the
discussion to the key concepts studied at the beginning of the Module like the ‘urban
health penalty’, ‘urban health advantage’, and the Sicky City Hypothesis. Remember to
give an overview of the city or London context of the health issue as a way of justifying
your choice of the city or London borough chosen. This part should help you to provide
a comprehensive analysis of the epidemiology of the health issue to show the depth of
the problem in the city or London borough chosen, the trends (changes over years),
patterns of distribution (sex, age, ethnicity, place), related problems (mortality,
morbidity, cost to health services) and the related determinants of health (including the
urban context). Use academic literature and evidence to support the discussion in your
4) A critique of the interventions developed to tackle the urban health issue – identify and
explain the measures developed in the city / London borough to tackle this urban health
issue. Go beyond a descriptive account and provide a critique supported by evidence
from evaluation studies of the impact of such measures on this urban health issue. You
should also look at the challenges related to the implementation of such measures. Do
the interventions relate to the determinants you discuss in the earlier part of your essay?
Do you see any gaps in interventions in terms of tackling the causes? Use academic
literature and evidence to support the discussion in your work.

5) Recommendations and Conclusions – this Section discusses your suggestions on what
has to be done in order to better tackle this urban health problem. Recommendations
should be tailored to specific stakeholders (e.g. if you are looking at childhood obesity,
your recommendations may be aimed at children, parents, schools, local authority, city
council, businesses, and other organisations). Your conclusions should summarise and
re-cap the key points of the sections of your essay, highlighting any implications for
policy and practice in relation to this urban health issue.

6) References
a) In-text referencing – all citations should be presented using the Harvard in-text
referencing style of author-date, e.g. (Peterson, 2010; Peterson et al, 2009) with page number/s
where direct quotes are used, e.g. “An urban health profile is a presentation of health data
profiling an urban community or population sub-group” (Musoro, 2010: 8). No initial/s of
authors should be included, for example, it is not correct to have (Musoro, L, 2010: 8). Full-stops
should be placed right at the end of sentences – take note of this especially where a reference is
given at the end of the sentence, e.g. it is wrong to have [“It is easy to produce a good urban
health profile if one follows instructions, avoiding being descriptive and maintain a high level
of innovative thinking”. (Musoro, 2013: 7).], but correct to present this as [“It is easy to produce
a good urban health profile if one follows instructions, avoiding being descriptive and maintain
a high level of innovative thinking” (Musoro, 2013: 7).]

b) References list (end-text referencing) – this Section should include all citations used in
the work, presented in the Harvard referencing style. Items should be presented in alphabetical
order without numbering or using bullet points. All items should have names of authors, date
published, name of document, place of publication and publisher.
7) Appendices – this Section should include items you judge as important for readers to look at
if they want additional information about a point of data presented. However, items that should
be put in the Appendices should not be core material. In other words, any material you think
you cannot complete the work without presenting constitutes core and should not be put in the
Appendices but in the main body of the work. On the other hand, even though only non-core
material should go into Appendices, nothing should go in here if no reference to it is made in
the main body of the work.
Important Essay Writing Resources
You can check on this resource to improve your essay writing skills: Writing Essays

Essential Readings in Preparation for Final Report
The following are readings that can help you to think about why the problem you are studying is an urban health issue. Readings these is not compulsory but could be very helpful. Click on the link if you wish to read all or some of the readings:
1. The Urban Health Advantage
2. Urbanisation, Urbanicity and Health
3. Beyond Deprivation and Health in UK Cities
4. Urban Conditions and Population Health
5. Cities and Public Health Crises



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