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ITEM ANALYSIS WORKSHEET TEMPLATE

PART 1: Writing Multiple Choice Test Items

Develop one multiple choice question that covers content from each of the four chapters listed below. When writing your sample questions, please keep in mind the specifications regarding item construction discussed in the textbook. Also, remember the importance of carefully crafted distractor options. Finally, please limit the number of response options to 4 (1 correct response and 3 distractors) and avoid the options of “all of the above,” none of the above,” or the like. Be sure to indicate which of the response options is the correct one.

Chapter 3 Multiple Choice Question (5 points)

Chapter 4 Multiple Choice Question (5 points)

Chapter 5 Multiple Choice Question (5 points)

Chapter 6 Multiple Choice Question (5 points)

PART 2: Item Analysis: Item Difficulty Index (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2017, pg. 248)

A test is only as good as its questions! When researchers, test constructors, and educators create items for ability or achievement tests, we have a responsibility to evaluate the items and make sure that they are useful and high-quality. The process that we use to evaluate test items is known as Item Analysis. When bad items are identified and eliminated from a test, that increases the efficiency, reliability and validity of the entire test! One way that we can distinguish among good and bad items is with the Item Difficulty Index.

Part 2A: Calculating Item Difficulty

Using the data below, calculate the Item Difficulty Index for the first 6 items on Quiz 1 from a recent section of PSYC101. For each item, “1” means the item was answered correctly and “0” means it was answered incorrectly. Type your answers in the spaces provided at the bottom of the table. (2 pts. each)

PSYC101 Quiz 1 Item Distribution and Total Scores
Examinee Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Item 4 Item 5 Item 6
Andre 1 1 1 1 1 1
Allison 0 1 1 1 0 0
Heather 1 1 1 1 0 0
Corey 1 1 0 1 1 0
Christina 0 0 1 0 0 1
Jeffrey 0 1 1 1 0 0
Shawn 1 1 1 1 0 1
Dana 0 0 1 1 0 1
Megan 1 1 1 1 0 1
David 0 1 1 1 0 1
Isabel 0 1 0 1 0 0
Lance 1 1 1 1 0 0
Aliyah 0 1 1 1 0 1
Blaire 0 1 1 1 1 1
Gabriel 0 0 1 1 0 0
Item
Difficulty

Part 2B: Calculating Optimal Item Difficulty (1 pt. each)

  1. For a test item with two response options (e.g., true/false), what is the probability of selecting the correct answer by chance?
    %
  2. Calculate the optimal level of difficulty for a test questions with two response options.
    .
  3. For a test item with three response options, what is the probability of selecting the correct answer by chance?
    %
  4. Calculate the optimal level of difficulty for a test questions with three response options.
    .
  5. For a test item with four response options, what is the probability of selecting the correct answer by chance?
    %
  6. Calculate the optimal level of difficulty for a test questions with four response options.
    .
  7. For a test item with five response options, what is the probability of selecting the correct answer by chance?
    %
  8. Calculate the optimal level of difficulty for a test questions with five response options.
    .

PART 3: Item Analysis: Item Discrimination Index (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2017, pg. 250–253)

Another way that test creators can distinguish between good and bad items is with an analysis called the Discrimination Index. The discrimination index measures how well an individual test item distinguishes between high scorers and low scores on the test. An item is considered to be “good” if most of the high scorers get it right, and most of the low scorers get it wrong.

Interpreting the Discrimination Index (d)
● The discrimination index can range from -1.0 to 1.0.
● The closer d is to 1.0, the better the item discriminates between high and low scorers
● The closer d is to 0, the more poorly the item discriminates between high and low scorers.
● An item with a negative discrimination index is considered a “negative discriminator” because more low scorers get the item correct than high scorers.
● A discrimination index of 1.0 means all the high scorers got the item correct and all of the low scorers got it incorrect.
● A discrimination index of -1.0 means all of the low scorers got the item correct and all of the high scorers got it incorrect.
● Items with d’s close to 0 or with negative d’s ought to be eliminated from the test!
Calculating the Item Discrimination Index (d)

Calculate the item discrimination index (d) for the 7 hypothetical test items presented below. Type your answers in the spaces provided at the right of the table (2 pts. each).

Item # U L n d
Item 1 0 30 30
Item 2 25 8 30
Item 3 23 19 30
Item 4 26 3 30
Item 5 28 1 30
Item 6 19 5 30
Item 7 3 26 30

Based on your calculations above, answer the following questions (2 pts. each).

  1. Which item discriminates the best?
  2. Which item discriminates most poorly?
  3. Based on your analysis, identify which two items would you choose to eliminate from this test and explain why you would eliminate each.

Part 4: Item Characteristic Curves (Cohen & Swerdlik, pg. 253–255)

Another method that test creators can use to assess the usefulness of test items is with Item Characteristic Curves. Item characteristic curves provide a graphical depiction of examinees’ performance on individual test items. As indicated in the figure below, Total Test Score is plotted on the x-axis of the curve, while proportion of examinees who got the item correct is plotted on the y-axis

Using the figure above, provide a written description of how test items A–E discriminate among examinees at various levels of performance. In your responses, discuss why each item would be considered a “good” or a “bad” item. EXAMPLE: “This item discriminates well among high scores, but doesn’t discriminate well among low scorers. So this item would be considered a good item because it discriminates at the highest levels of performance.” (4 pts. each)

Item A:

Item B:

Item C:

Item D:

Item E:

Part 5: Qualitative Item Analysis (Cohen & Swerdlik, pg. 258–260)
Qualitative item analysis refers to a set of non-statistical procedures used to gather information about the usefulness of test items. These analyses typically involve interviews, panel discussions, questionnaires and other forms of verbal exchange with test-takers to explore how individual test items work.
As an online student, you have a very different test-taking experience than residential students. Based on your readings from Chapter 8, identify 4 topics related to online test taking, and create 4 qualitative questions that you could ask online test-takers to gain an understanding of their experiences with test-taking. Also, as students at a Christian institution of higher education, course assignments/assessments are supposed to give students an opportunity to integrate course content with their Christian worldview. Given the topic of faith and learning, create one qualitative question that you could ask test-takers.

Qualitative Item Analysis
Topic (2 pts. each) Sample Question for Test-Takers (2 pts. each)

Sample Solution

Introduction Both mental and developmental disorders in childhood, refers to syndromes in neurological, emotional or behavioral development, with serious impact in psychological and social health of children (Nevo & Manassis., 2009). Children who suffer from these types of disorders, they need special support firstly from their close family environment and then from educational systems. In many case, the disorders continue to exist in adulthood (Scott et al., 2016). According to Murray and partners (2012), mental and developmental syndromes in childhood, are an emerging challenge for modern health care systems worldwide. The most common factors that tend to increase such syndromes in low and middle income countries, is the reduced mortality of children under the age of five and the onset of mental and developmental syndromes in adults during their childhood One of the most common mental disorders in children with developmental disorder is anxiety disorder. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, seven types of anxiety disorder are recognized both in childhood and adolescents. Among them are Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The aim of this study is, to present a common mental disorder that affects children with a developmental syndrome. Thus, try to present the clinical features, the prevalence and diagnostic issues in this population. 1. Mental disorders in children World Health Organization (WHO) has identified mental health disorders, as one of the main causes of disability globally (Murray & Lopez., 2002). According to the same source of evidence, childhood is a crucial life stage on the occurrence of mental disorders, which are likely to affect the quality of life, the learning and social level of a child. Within this framework, possible negative experiences at home like family conflicts or bullying incidents at school, may have a damaging effect on the development of children, and also in their core cognitive and emotional skills. Moreover, the socioeconomic conditions within some children grow up can also affects their choices and opportunities in adolescence and adulthood. On the other hand, children’s exposure in risk factors during early life, can significantly affect their mental health, even decades later. The coherences of such exposure can lead on high and periodically increasing rates of mental health, and also behavioral problems. In European Union countries, anxiety and depression syndromes are among top 5 causes of overall disease burden among children and adolescents. But, suicide is the most common cause of death between 10 to19-year-olds, mainly in countries with low- and middle-income and the second cause in high income countries (WHO, 2013-2020). 2. Anxiety disorder in children with neurodevelopmental disorder According to American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013), anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive or improper fear, which is connected with behavioral disorders that impair functional capacity. Furthermore, anxiety is characterized as a common human response in danger or threat and can be highly adaptive in case of elicited in an appropriate context. Is clinically important when anxiety is persistent and associated with impairment in functional capacity, or affects an individuals’ quality of life (Arlond et al., 2003). Especially in childhood, clinical characteristics of anxiety is complicated when complicated by developmental factors, due to the reason that some type of fears maybe characterizes as normative in certain age of groups (Gullone, 2000). Additionally, although a child is able of experiencing the emotional and physiologic components of anxiety at an early age, definite mental abilities may be prerequisites for the full expression of an anxiety disorder (Freeman et al., 2002). Within this framework, Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is characterized by excessive and developmental inappropriate anxiety, as a response to separation from the close family environment or from attached figures. The most common symptoms in such disorder are, anticipatory anxiety concerning with separation occasions, determined fears about losing or being separated 2.1. Anxiety disorder prevalence in children Although an essential body of data are available about the epidemiology of anxiety disorders, the evidence for prevalence presented are highly fragmented and the reports for prevalence varies considerably (Baxter et al., 2012). According to global epidemiological data evidence, mental disorders is a difficult task, due to significant absence of officially data for many geographical regions globally. These evidence are less in pediatric patients – children, particularly in low to middle income countries where other concerns are in the front line. The above issue of data absence, is highlighted in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (Whiteford et al., 2013). Childhood mental disorders epidemiologically data, were remain relatively constant during the 21 world regions defined by Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. However, these prevalence rates were based on sporadic data, for some disorders or no data for specific disorders in childhood. According to the12-month global prevalence of childhood mental disorders in 2010 is shown that, anxiety disorder rates were higher in adolescents between the age of 15 to 19 years old and especially in females (32,2% general rate, 3,74% in males and 7,02% in females). Moreover The anxiety disorder rates in children between the age of 5 to 9 years old were (5,4%) and 21,8% in children between the age of 10-14. In both groups of children, the percentages of prevalence were higher in females. These systematic reviews were then updated for GBD 2013, were the data for mental disorders in children and adolescents were sparse. This resulted in large uncertainty intervals around burden estimates despite mental disorders being found as the leading cause of disability in those aged under 25 years. Moreover, lack of absence of empirical data restricts the visibility of mental disorders in comparison with other diseases in childhood and makes it difficult to advocate for their inclusion as a priority in health initiatives 2.2. Anxiety disorder clinical features The main clinical features of Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is, the inordinate and developmental inappropriate anxiety about separation from the home or from attachment figures. The leading symptoms of that type of mental disorder, refers to anticipatory anxiety regarding separation events, persistent concerns about losing or being separated from an attachment figure, school denial, unwillingness to stay alone in the home, or to sleep alone, recurrent nightmares with a separation theme, and somatic complaints. In particular, the clinical feature of school refusal has been reported to happen in about 75% of children with SAD, and also SAD occurs in 70%to 80% of children presenting with school refusal. In that case, epidemiologic studies exhibit that the rates of prevalence are from 3.5% to 5.1% with a mean age of onset from 4.3 to 8.0 years old (Masi et al., 2001). One area that has attracted considerable attention is the potential link between childhood SAD and panic disorder in adulthood. Indirect support for this hypothesis is provided by retrospective studies of adults with anxiety disorders. Furthermore, the developmental sequel between childhood anxiety disorders and panic disorders in adult age, is also supported by the biologic challenge study, of Pine et al. (2000). Researchers at this study found that, children who suffer from SAD (but not social phobia) they showed respiratory changes during carbon dioxide inhalation that which had common characteristics with adults’ panic attacks. In a similar study, children with SAD and parents who suffer with panic attacks, were found to have significant percentage of atopic disorders, including asthma and allergies (Slattery et al., 2002). On the other hand, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in childhood, is characterized by immoderate worry and stress about daily life events that the child is not able to control effectively. That anxiety is expressed on most days and has a duration for at least 6 months, and also there is an extended distress or difficulty in performing everyday processes (Gale & Millichamp., 2016).
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