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Marchantiophyta

Compile a Photo Gallery (slideshow in Powerpoint or Google Slides) of your own photos of examples of the taxa listed below. You may have more than one example (species) of the same taxa if that is indicated (for example, you can get credit for up to 4 correctly identified Pinophytes). You do not need to have every different taxon listed, just enough for the maximium grade (total of 20). Five points willl be for presentation–how nice does the slide show look? how diverse and creative are your examples? If your pictures are copied from the internet or iNaturalist I will let you know that you need to re-do the assignment and you will have 0 points until you do.

Taxon List

Bryophyta—1
Marchantiophyta–1
Monilophyta—up to 4
Lycopodiophyta–1
Pinophyta—up to 4
Cycadophyta—up to 4
Ginkgophyta—1
Magnoliophyta/Monocot— up to 4
Magnoliophyta/Dicot—up to 6
Fungi—Basidiomycota (you are extremely unlikely to find any other groups)—1
Lichen—1
The Details and Rules

Each slide should have a picture of the plant or plants labeled with the name of the taxon as listed above.
Each unique example that is correctly identified is worth 1 point, so for full credit, you need to find & correctly identify 20 different plants (+fungi or lichen). For example, if you include a yellow-flowered hibiscus and a pink-flowered hibiscus I will only award 1 point.
One student from the group should upload the file with all group members names indicated in some way (for example, on first slide).
Your neighborhood, Balboa Park and Mission Trails Regional Park (Visitor Center Trail) are great areas to walk around to look for different types of plants and are free. The zoo has all these plants, many identified, so if you are a member or can go with a friend that is also a great (and fun) way to do the assignment. Plant stores (nureseries or garden centers) are also places to find lots of different plants and they are labeled for you!
Photos should be taken yourselves, not downloaded from the internet. Blurry or otherwise “bad” photos are fine as long as I can see it well enough to identify it. If you can’t find a plant, email me for suggestions for where to look or find an example in iNaturalist and visit it.
For each taxon, you can have up to the number indicated of DIFFERENT species. For example, a daisy, a poppy and a sunflower (be careful, some plants’ flowers come in different colors).
You do not need to identify the species with either a common name or a scientific name.
The first 1-5 (depending on taxon) plants submitted will be evaluated, so do not submit extras, hoping some examples out of your pile will be correct.

Sample Solution

f these stimuli, termed targets. Stimuli between the targets are masks or distractors. Single targets, even though presented for only 100ms can be reported accurately. However, research has shown that when searching for two masked targets (T1 and T2), there is a severe impairment for detection of the second target, when the two targets are presented within less than 500ms. This finding is known as the AB. Participants however, can accurately report T2 when told to ignore T1, or the targets are separated by more than 500ms. (Shapiro Arnell & Raymond, 1997a; Raymond, Shapiro & Arnell,1992) There are a number of cognitive explanations for the AB, Raymond et al. (1992) put forward the idea that inability to detect T2 is down to T1 using up attention resources meaning there are insufficient resources left to process T2. But following their further 1997 research they refined this idea suggesting, while T2 is not processed to a level where it can be reported, they were incorrect to suggest that no aspects of T2 are processed. There a number of studies which support this claim. Luck, Vogel & Shapiro (1996) found that if T2 was a word presented during the time period where the AB occurs it produced a negative event-related potential known as the N400, which is a marker that the brain is processing meaning. In another study Shapiro, Ward & Sorensen (1997b) used a three target AB paradigm where T2 was presented during the AB period. Results highlighted that although participants were unable to report T2, it did act as a prime for T3 and ability to detect T3 was better when T2 was semantically related. Both these studies lead to the conclusion that T2 undergoes some degree of higher-level processing, including meaning but does not enter our consciousness. Based on the idea of T2 undergoing limited processing a number of new theories to explain AB have emerged. Shapiro et al. (1997a) suggested an interference theory, whereby T1, T2 and the masks which appear simultaneously after them are all encoded in a short-term storage buffer where they will interfere and compete with each other. Differential weighting of T1 over T2 due to T1 being the first task means there is accurate report of T1 at the expense of T2. The interference theory predicts the number of items competing in the buffer will affect the magnitude of the AB. Evidence from Issak, Shapiro & Martin (1999) supports this and found AB increases with number of competitors which share conceptual features. An alternative theory is proposed by Chun & Potter (1995) who suggest a 2-stage model. In stage one stimuli are processed to a preliminary stage where features and meaning are registered but it cannot be reported. In stage 2 the stimuli are consolidated so they can be reported. They explain AB due to the fact that T2 cannot enter stage 2 as it is occupied by T1. The aim of this study was to try and replicate the findings found in the previous study on AB conducted by Raymond et al. (1992). It was hypothesised that detection of T2 will be less accurate in dual-detection task compared to a single-detection task. As well as that T2 detection will be more accurate when there is a longer delay between T1 and T2 compared a short delay.
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