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  1. How teacher’s organization commitment works as a mediator in the context of the study? What is the problem of TOC? Elaborate more and add evidence to support.
  2. Your problem statement is not justified. You didn’t highlight what are the real problem that Pakistan Education faced especially in the teacher’s organizational commitment, instructional leadership, and teacher self-efficacy.
  3. What is the research gap for this study? What is the difference between this study with previous study?
  4. What is the theoretical gap? Need to show theoretical gap which means that no publish theory has addressed the research-concerned area, and the research gap as well on which question or problem that has not been answered by any of the existing studies or research within this field of study

1.1 Problem Statement

Primary education is a crucial stage for producing good quality citizens because education forms the core of the education system. Therefore, the Ministry of Education Pakistan has drawn some objectives for primary education, for example, to foster students’ personal development, preparation for the examination and international test, social capital and cultural thought; religious and moral contribution to the society and country (Zirkel & DuPaul, 2017). At the primary level, student’s academic performance has long been the interest of researchers in numerous jurisdictions to moderate the obstinate discrepancies in educational accomplishments among numerous social, cultural, racial groups around different parts of the world (Reardon, 2016; Pokropek et al., 2015).
A survey result conducted in 2016 by the government of Pakistan reflected low levels of students’ academic performance in primary schools of Pakistan. Assessments of Grade IV students conducted in 127 districts of the country showed that in Language test 24%, mathematics 19 %, Science 33%, and social studies test 43% students scored more significant than the scaled mean score respectively (Zirkel & Dupaul, 2017). Also, a national achievement test conducted at the national level (2014) disclosed that 79% of students in Science acquired scaled mean scores lower than the mean of 500, and just 21% of students cut across the mean score of 500. Another survey result likewise unfurled a decline in the attainments of students over the years. Students’ performance in Science dropped from 467 to 433 in between 2006 to 2014. In the same way, achievement in English (writing) and the rest of the subjects overall presented an alarming level that emphasized the requirement of urgent remedial actions (Shah et al., 2018).

Many researchers concluded the excellence of school principals as a significant part to improved school and students’ academic performance (Hallinger & Chen, 2015; Allen, Grigsby & Peters, 2015). Furthermore, one of the leadership style that has garnered interest in the principal job and its different dimensions to improve students’ academic performance is instructional leadership (DiPaola & Hoy, 2015). Instructional leadership investigators agree that instruction and students’ academic performances are the core of instructional leadership (Boyce & Bowers, 2018). Through principal instructional leadership teaching quality and teacher organizational commitment can also be marginally increased in all kind of institutions (Hallinger et al., 2018).

Researchers also indicated that teachers exhibiting greater self-efficacy are inclined to link and develop higher students’ academic performances (Taştan et al., 2018; Zee & Koomen, 2016). Substantial evidences have currently accumulated related to the impacts of positive efficacy beliefs on the part of teachers such as higher job performance, enhanced attendance, and better students’ academic performance (Taştan et al., 2018; Mojavezi & Tamiz, 2012).

Existing studies regarding the relationship between instructional leadership, teachers’ efficacy and students’ academic performance show inconsistent results. For instance Mestry’s study (2017), highlighted the direct effect of principal instructional leadership on students’ academic performance in South Africa. While studies by Robinson et al. (2017) found that the students’ academic performance is indirectly assisted by principal instructional leadership. Liu & Hallinger (2018) concluded that based on their reviews of literature and past empirical researches, there are mixed findings on the relationship between instructional leadership of principals, teachers’ efficacy and students’ academic performance. Therefore, more studies are needed in order to arrive at a more conclusive findings in terms of the relationship between instructional leadership, teachers’ efficacy and students’ academic performance

In addition as found out by Liu & Hallinger (2018) and Robinson et al. (2017), instructional leadership and teacher efficacy were indirectly related to students’ academic performance. They also suggested the need of mediating variable to be used in the relationship to students’ academic performance. Therefore teachers’ organizational commitment is proposed as mediating variable in this study. Teacher organizational commitment is regarded as the key factor and can be exhibited in the teachers’ teaching, dedication to improving students’ academic performances (Taştan et al., 2018). However studies that employed teachers’ organizational commitment as mediator between the relationship of school leadership and students’ academic performance are in general still limited.

Evidence shows that organizational commitment theories and models has been applied mostly into public and social organizations other than educational organizations (Al-Jabari, & Ghazzawi, 2019: Berberoglu, 2018). Moreover the theoretical understanding in the teachers’ organizational commitment research is still lacking because past studies have mostly focused on describing the types, strengths, structures, and technical aspects of teachers organizational commitment and not much on the outcomes (Al-Jabari, & Ghazzawi, 2019: Berberoglu, 2018). Therefore this study will bridge the gap by clarifying students’ academic performance as an outcome of the interactions among the variables. Despite the widespread evidence about instructional leadership models, the knowledge basis in certain countries is still developing and particularly in many growing countries, accessible literature on instructional leadership practices is still very limited. Also, instructional leadership is usually culture specific (Harris et al., 2019; Hallinger et al., 2018). Maximum teachers’ self-efficacy research studies have experimented with the school population of the United States and western countries. Supplementary investigations from a different culture will increase our conception of the process and generalizability of self-efficacy theory (Hallinger et al., 2018; Fackler & Malmberg, 2016).

Based on the reviews, existing literature regarding the association between under discussion variables is still scanty and inconclusive. Thus, this study proposes an explanation related to mediating effects of teachers’ organizational commitment, the commanding variable that has not earlier perceived as a source of indirect instructional leadership, and teachers’ self-efficacy effect on students’ academic performance based on Pakistani context.

Sample Solution

The Last Great Explorer GuidesorSubmit my paper for examination By Brook Wilensky-Lanford The journey to discover the Garden of Eden seems like an occupation that ought to have fallen by the wayside a long time before the nineteenth century. Never again did the whimsical medieval topographies of Prester John or Columbus take into consideration the presence of a fascinating, pristine natural heaven. This was a more up to date, smarter age. We had vanquished the wild areas of the world. What's more, Darwin's Origin of Species, distributed in 1859, was gradually demonstrating that individuals and, state, the fowls of the air, were not made at the same time in a solitary spot on the globe. Darwin himself rejected the quest for a land purpose of sources in his 1871 Descent of Man. He permitted that: "It is to some degree progressively likely that our initial ancestors lived on the African mainland than somewhere else." But, he announced, there was additionally a huge gorilla that wandered Europe in the relatively recent past, and at any rate the earth is mature enough for primate species to have moved right around it at this point. In this way, "It is pointless to estimate regarding this matter." Victoria Woodhull, women's activist radical and free-love advocate, was less discretionary in her epic discourse "The Garden of Eden," which she conveyed oftentimes during the 1870s. Eden on Earth was rubbish: "Any school kid of twelve years old who should peruse the portrayal of this nursery and not find that it has no topographical centrality whatever, should be criticized for his ineptitude." Perhaps she was alluding to the minister voyager David Livingstone, who had proclaimed, while frantic with jungle fever in 1871, that heaven existed at the wellspring of the Nile, which he made a decision to be in the Lake Bangweulu area of Zambia. Livingstone was by all account not the only one despite everything searching for Eden. This valiant modern lifestyle was flipping around time-respected convictions. Advancement was proposing that people had rose after some time from our less-canny, carnal primate sources. In any case, Christianity had been demanding for quite a long time that people had slipped, through unique sin, from close heavenly statures in the Garden of Eden to the hopeless, debased society of the late nineteenth century. What was a cutting edge, loyal individual to accept? Enter William Fairfield Warren, recognized Methodist pastor and instructor. As the leader of Boston University, he realized science would characterize what's to come. However, he was reluctant to surrender his religious philosophy to the new order. How to weave the two points of view together? Irrationally, Warren looked to Eden. He set about making an interpretation of the Bible into science: Eden was "the one spot on Earth where the natural conditions are the most great." Genesis says Eden contains "each tree that is lovely to the eye or useful for nourishment"; Warren set "widely varied vegetation of practically unheard of force and extravagance." He observed a newfound actuality: a large number of years back, Earth had been a lot hotter. He followed the revealing of phenomenal animals without a moment's delay well-known and legendary, similar to the wooly mammoth, the dinosaur, and the goliath sequoia. He knew there was as yet one clear spot on the world guide, a spot where no one had been. Furthermore, he come to the unavoidable end result: the Garden of Eden is at the North Pole. It seemed well and good, as it were. Both Eden and the Pole had frustratingly opposed endeavors to find and guarantee them, regardless of hundreds of years of risky, costly undertakings. Warren distributed this hypothesis in 1881 as Paradise Found, The Cradle of the Human Race at the North Pole. The tome emphatically smelled with scholastic power. There were long sections in French, German, and antiquated Greek in the references. He drew on his claim to fame, near folklore, which he portrayed as "the study of the most seasoned conventional convictions and recollections of humanity." He knew the incredible epic old stories of the Hindus, the Celts, the Chinese, the Persians. In the nineteenth century, this was an uncommon, recondite assortment of information, brimming with allegorical echoes of Bible stories, and goal "proof" of Christian realities. The list of "creators alluded to or cited" in Paradise Found records 580 sources—for 495 pages of content. Directly by Darwin, there is Ignatius Donnelly, who guaranteed the lost mainland of Atlantis was genuine; it was demolished by the close impact of Earth with a comet. His 1882 book Atlantis was uncontrollably well known (Donnelly had another hypothesis—that Shakespeare's plays may really be composed by Francis Bacon—yet at that point, that was considered too crazy to be in any way paid attention to). A few commentators felt that Warren's wanton reference did his contention no favors, however obviously numerous perusers were not disturbed. The second printing of Paradise Found, discharged just months after the first, was peppered with tributes. Warren composed gladly of a "plain unschooled Bible understudy," Mr. Alexander Skelton, a mechanical engineer and metal forger of Paterson, New Jersey, who had freely landed at his own "strikingly complete and apt" contention for a North Pole Eden. Warren gloated that one Professor Heer, a haughty Swiss scientist, guaranteed that Warren was copying him. He likewise distributed a tribute from the British classicist, and reliable Anglican, Archibald Henry Sayce: "Temporarily, I may state that your view appears to me famously sensible… " (regardless of that Sayce was really alluding to a prior work of Warren's, about the cosmology of Homer's Iliad). Warren's hypothesis was "quickly overriding each previous speculation" on the two sides of the Atlantic—regardless of whether Warren said so himself. In this way, it involved jumbling dissatisfaction for him that other Eden hypotheses kept on showing up. A German paleologist, Moritz Engel of Leipzig, had the nerve to distribute The Solution to the Paradise Question all the while with Paradise Found. Engel's Eden was a desert spring in the desert outside of Damascus. His four waterways were flood downpours that vanish in the dry season, come May or June. Warren retaliated: Engel's Eden was terrible. Maybe Mr. Engel had never at any point understood Genesis, with its image of plenitude and bounty! It was additionally biased, as though he never at any point saw that there were "legends of the Happy Garden" found in many other antiquated customs! To top it all off, Engel's Eden was informal, putting forth no attempt to join "the realities and speculations of ethnologists and zoologists with regards to the beginnings of human life… . The ideal opportunity for investigations of such limitation as this is past." Warren's request that the North Pole Eden was the abrogating, definitive record was genuine. Yet, it might have been a little gullible, given the mystery that Warren himself uncovered on the absolute last page of his book: he didn't really figure his heaven could be found. He composes, sorrowfully: "Tragically deceased Eden is found, yet its doors are banned against us. Presently, as toward the start of our outcast, a sword turns each approach to keep the Way of the Tree of Life… " Arriving at Polar Eden, we could sit idle "however swiftly bow in the midst of a solidified destruction and, moronic with an anonymous wonderment, let fall a couple of hot tears over the covered and destroyed hearthstone of Humanity's soonest and loveliest home." The best way to return to Eden was in death, on the off chance that we acknowledge the penance of Christ. Follow Jesus throughout everyday life, and in death you can walk directly past the cherubim with their blazing swords. Furthermore, much the same as that, regardless of his earnest attempts to be the final word on Eden, Warren had accidentally opened the entryway for a totally different age of Eden-searchers. They started to spring up very quickly, and many even refered to Warren as legitimate proof for their own cases, similarly as Warren had finished with his 580 sources. It began with Warren's own partners in the Methodist church. Reverend E. D. Ledyard declared to a group of people of 5,000 at a retreat in upstate New York that Eden was fairly nearer to home. "In Chautauqua, we see one spot where Edenic benefits have been reestablished. Christ is the focal figure here. During that time Adam heaven is being recovered." In 1890, a three-section article in the San Jose, California evening paper entitled "Nursery of Eden: Its Position on the Globe Has Been Definitely Located" clarified that California's Santa Clara Valley had all the qualities of an Eden—flawless state, immaculate atmosphere, and the goliath sequoia. On the off chance that Warren was so enthused about the sequoia, the author notes, for what reason didn't he pick California? "In coming so close to reality, it appears to be abnormal that the capable logical essayist didn't get the genuine light with regards to the area of the first home of man." Warren couldn't have been glad to discover his work lauded by Wyoming author Willis George Emerson in the introduction to his 1908 sci-fi novel The Smoky God. The book professed to be the genuine record of a Norwegian angler who in 1829 had fallen through an opening at the North Pole into the inside of the Hollow Earth—where the Garden of Eden is reachable by monorail. "In his painstakingly arranged volume, Mr. Warren nearly stubbed his toe against the genuine truth, yet missed it apparently by just a tiny bit." Dr. George C. Allen, a Boston University philologist, trusted him associate Warren that Eden was at the North Pole—yet he made one significant change. In 1921, he guaranteed that the North Pole moves altogether around the globe at regular intervals, so "cautious scientific calculations bring the first heaven where Ohio presently is." Warren himself, who passed on in 1929 at 96 years old, remained totally, outreachingly persuaded of his unique hypothesis' veracity. The North Pole Eden "has shown itself the preeminent and unavoidable speculation from the real factors of current information regarding man and the world. It has fit the most seasoned customs of religion and the most recent accomplishments of science…

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