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Chapter 1

  1. Search your local newspaper or online multimedia for the results of a survey or interview about any topic. Summarize the results and do the best job you can of describing how the researchers who were involved, or the authors of the survey, came to the conclusions they did. It may or may not be apparent. Once you have some idea of what they did, try to speculate about other ways the same information might be collected, organized, and summarized.
  2. Make a list of 10 things that you would like to measure and speculate how you might do that. For example, let us say some of your coursework involves the incidence of crime in suburban settings. What might you like to measure to know more about those outcomes? How would you measure these things, and which measures do you think would be “best” (do not worry about how to define that loaded word).
  3. Finally, as your last in this first set of exercises, come up with five of the most interesting questions you can about your own area of study or interest. Do your best to come up with questions for which you would want real, existing information or data. Be a scientist!

Chapter 2

  1. Using SPSS, compute the mean, median, and mode for the following set of 40 reading scores. Show your work by copying and pasting a copy of the output below.
    31 32 43 42
    24 34 25 44
    23 43 24 36
    25 41 23 28
    14 21 24 17
    25 23 44 21
    13 26 23 32
    12 26 14 42
    14 31 52 12
    23 42 32 34
  2. Compute the mean, median, and mode for the following three sets of scores saved as Chapter 2 Data Set 2. Use a computer program such as SPSS. Copy and paste a copy of the output below.
    Score 1 Score 2 Score 3
    3 34 154
    7 54 167
    5 17 132
    4 26 145
    5 34 154
    6 25 145
    7 14 113
    8 24 156
    6 25 154
    5 23 123
  3. Compute the means for the following set of scores saved as Chapter 2 Data Set 3 (in appendix C) using SPSS. Copy and paste a copy of the output below.
    Hospital Size (number of beds) Infection Rate (per 1,000 admissions)
    234 1.7
    214 2.4
    165 3.1
    436 5.6
    432 4.9
    342 5.3
    276 5.6
    187 1.2
    512 3.3
    553 4.1
  4. You are the manager of a fast-food restaurant. Part of your job is to report to the boss at the end of each day which special is selling best. Use your vast knowledge of descriptive statistics and write one paragraph to let the boss know what happened today. Here are the data. Don’t use SPSS to compute important values; rather, do it by hand. Be sure to include a copy of your work.
    Special Number Sold Cost
    Huge Burger 20 $2.95
    Baby Burger 18 $1.49
    Chicken Littles 25 $3.50
    Porker Burger 19 $2.95
    Yummy Burger 17 $1.99
    Coney Dog 20 $1.99
    Total specials sold 119
  5. Imagine yourself as the CEO of a huge corporation, and you are planning an expansion. You’d like your new store to have some of the same typical numbers as the other three that are under your empire. By hand, provide some idea of what you want the store to look like. And remember that you have to select whether to use the mean, the median, or the mode as an average. Good luck, young Jedi.

Average Store 1 Store 2 Store 3 New Store
Sales (in thousands) 323.6 234.6 308.3
Number of items purchased 3,454 5,645 4,565
Number of visitors 4,534 6,765 6,654

  1. Here are the top 10 season hitting percentages for members of two baseball teams, and you must determine which is the best-hitting team, defined as the average. You have to decide which type of average you use and why. Do this by using SPSS.
    Team 1 Team 2
    0.345 0.243
    0.254 0.378
    0.278 0.312
    0.331 0.298
    0.267 0.287
    0.465 0.387
    0.189 0.301
    0.312 0.412
    0.365 0.254
    0.287 0.342
  2. Under what conditions would you use the median rather than the mean as a measure of central tendency? Why? Provide an example of two situations in which the median might be more useful than the mean as a measure of central tendency.
  3. Suppose you are working with a data set that has some very “different” (much larger or much smaller than the rest of the data) scores. What measure of central tendency would you use and why?
  4. For this exercise, use the following set of 16 scores (ranked) that consists of income levels ranging from about $50,000 to about $200,000. What is the best measure of central tendency and why?
    $199,999
    $98,789
    $90,878
    $87,678
    $87,245
    $83,675
    $77,876
    $77,743
    $76,564
    $76,465
    $75,643
    $66,768
    $65,654
    $58,768
    $54,678
    $51,354
  5. Use the data in Chapter 2 Data Set 4 (in appendix C of your textbook), compute (use SPSS) the average attitude scores (with a score of 10 being positive and 1 being negative) for three groups of individuals with varying degrees of experience with urban transportation.

11.Take a look at the following set of the average hours of work per week for two groups of adolescents and compute the more appropriate average score.

Child Group 1 Group 2
1 Lots Little
2 Little Somewhat
3 Somewhat Somewhat
4 Little Little
5 Little Somewhat
6 Little Lots
7 Little Lots
8 Little Somewhat
9 Somewhat Somewhat
10 Lots Somewhat

Sample Solution

Masculinity: It means to see whether emphasis is on achievement and earning. Indonesia scores low on the masculinity as compared to Australia and New Zealand that means Asian people that they prefer quality of life and not run after material things like money while in western countries during work they give high priority to the work if they have set some deadlines they tend to achieve it on the specific time. • Uncertainty Avoidance: It means to measure how people reacts to the unseen situations. Indonesia scores less on the uncertainty avoidance as compared to Australia and New Zealand. Indonesian believes that uncertainty is common in business and they do not take stress. They believe that managers should not use bad language for the staff they should overcome difficult situations with themselves and try to keep smiling how angry they are inside. While in western countries concept is opposite, managers become furious if they see unseen situations like targets are not met within deadlines. • Long term orientation: These organisations generally looks towards achieving long term objectives they are generally future oriented. Indonesian culture is long term oriented, it believes on maintaining relationship and assume that employee will remain within the company for long period, while in western countries short term orientation culture is adopted. They feel that time is precious. • Indulgence: It means how people control their own desires and children are socialised towards society. Indonesian have low indulgence as compared to Australia and New Zealand that means Indonesian people do not prefer leisure time and have control on their desires. Section 2 Indonesia Archipalego: Indonesian archipelago is unique in terms of Asia because it has many islands and having more than 245 million population and majority of the population here is Muslim. Its culture is ethnically diverse and increasingly have urbanised population (Naafs 2013). • Economic Structure: Indonesia Economy 2011 defines that every country has different economic systems. Initially Indonesia adopted liberal economic system in which communities perform economic activities. Thereafter socialist economic system came into existence, but in the new era socialist economic system again transformed into democracy economic system. This system continued until reformation and after reformation economic system based on social economy was adopted by government and still prevails in the Indonesia. Indonesian economy has seen very up and downs in the last few decades and it mostly depends upon the agriculture, manufacturing and service sectors. Agriculture is the primary sector, manufacturing comes on the secondary level and service sector is on the tertiary level (Indonesia economic structure 2010) • Religion: Indonesia investments defines that six religions are recognised officiall
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