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Stem cells.

a) Your friend has suffered a spinal cord injury after a bad car accident. The medical team has decided that he is a good candidate for a clinical trial using stem cell therapy. Your friend has not had a biology course since high school, so you decide to write him a letter sharing your knowledge of stem cells. Include in your letter a description of the biology of stem cells and how these cells are unique from other cells. Contrast the different types of stem cells, including pros and cons for each type. Explain how stems cells can be used to treat diseases and injury, with special focus on spinal cord injuries. Include information from at least one research study or clinical trial. Conclude with your own opinion.

b) Genetically modified organisms (GMOs). A friend tells you that she avoids foods containing GMOs because they are unhealthy. You decide to use the knowledge gained from your biology class and some additional research to form your own opinion on GMOs. Answer the following questions backed up by reliable information sources. What is the purpose of genetically engineering of crop plants? Include at least two specific examples of commonly grown GMO crops. How are GMOs created? Use the provided course materials and make a connection to the central dogma of molecular biology in your explanation. Which foods in your supermarket contain GMOs? Are foods that contain GMOs safe for human consumption? What types of regulations exist for these foods? Clearly explain your reasoning for each answer in your paper and conclude whether or not you agree with your friend.

c) Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) has been the most recent breakthrough discovery in bioengineering that enables scientists to edit DNA. Because you have studied biology in this course, you have volunteered at your niece’s Middle School Science Club to monitor a student debate about CRISPR. The students will be watching the following video before the discussion: and you need to be prepared in case there are any questions. Please research and write an answer to each of the following questions: What is “CRISPR”? What role does Cas9 play in the CRISPR process? How does the CRISPR-Cas9 system snip and replace any DNA sequence? What are the potential benefits and drawbacks of gene editing? Include specific examples. Do you believe that the inherent risks of modifying animal DNA is worth the rewards? Explain. Do you believe that it is ethical to genetically engineer humans and/or animals? Explain.

d) Vaccines. Your friend is worried about the many vaccines that his newborn son is scheduled to receive and asks you for advice since you are taking a biology course. Start with an explanation of how vaccines work. Briefly contrast the traditional methods used to create vaccines with more recently used biotechnology techniques. Then list some of the diseases that babies and children in the US are routinely vaccinated against. How has vaccinations impacted the frequency of these diseases over the past 100 years? Why are some people worried about giving their children vaccines? Is there scientific evidence to support these concerns? Conclude with advice to your friend in regard to getting the recommended vaccines based on what you learned from reliable information sources.

e) Fracking (hydraulic fracturing) and tar sands (oil sands). With society’s dependence on nonrenewable fossil fuels, the oil & gas industry is turning to hydraulic fracturing and tar (oil) sands to extract natural gas and oil. A friend asks you “What’s all this controversy in the news about fracking and tar sands?” Briefly explain to your friend how hydraulic fracturing and tar (oil) sands are used to obtain these fossil fuels. Then, in more detail, describe the environmental problems that may result from these processes and why they are controversial. Issues that should be addressed involves water, air and soil pollution with special focus on global climate change, effects on human health, and effects on other species and natural ecosystems. Finally, give your opinions on possible solutions to these environmental problems, with your reasoning backed by information from reliable information sources.

Sample Solution

A few people get irritated over hiccuping again and again. There are even individuals who have constant hiccuping. Truth be told, "how to dispose of hiccups" is one of the most-looked through inquiries on the web. All things considered, there are numerous things you can do. So as to dispose of hiccups, you can finish breathing and stance methods, use pressure focuses to further your potential benefit, eat and drink certain things, and utilize some exceptional cures. These arrangements will be talked about in the accompanying passages. Right off the bat, there are many breathing and posing procedures you can use to dispose of hiccups. The vast majority of the procedures are anything but difficult to do. As per Healthline, there are six physical techniques for vanquishing your next hiccup: rehearsing moderate breathing, holding your breath in for some time, breathing into a paper pack, embracing your knees for two minutes while plunking down, compacting your chest by inclining or twisting forward, and finishing the Valsava move. As expressed by Healthline, "To do this move, attempt to breathe out while squeezing your nose and keeping your mouth shut" ("How to Get Rid of Hiccups: 26 Remedies That Can Actually Help"). You can't do every one of these procedures at the same time, yet you can attempt them individually and see which ones work best for you. Likewise, you can attempt to utilize your body's weight focuses to further your potential benefit to scatter hiccups. In spite of the fact that weight focuses appear to be an exclusive science, standard western medication suggests utilizing them. As per Medical News Today, these three methods that manage these focuses can help: "[1] Pull on the tongue – hold the finish of the tongue in the fingers and pull. [2] Press on the stomach delicately. [3] Place delicate weight on each side of the nose while gulping" (Nordqvist, Christian). Despite the fact that these strategies may appear to be bizarre from the outset, they have a specific measure of adequacy that warrants their proposal. Another normal method to dispose of hiccups is to expend certain nourishments and fluids. There are a lot of things we can eat and drink to pursue away a dreadful scene of hiccuping. As referenced by Healthline, it is acceptable to "drink ice water, gradually drink a glass of warm water ceaselessly to inhale, drink water through a fabric or paper towel, suck on an ice 3D square, swish ice water, eat a spoonful of nectar or nutty spread, eat some sugar, suck on a lemon, put a drop of vinegar on your tongue" ("How to Get Rid of Hiccups: 26 Remedies That Can Actually Help") and that's just the beginning. By and by, try out which nourishment and drink methods work best, rather than attempting numerous simultaneously. And afterward, there are some abnormal procedures that have been prescribed by researchers and different masters. One of these hypotheses expresses that hiccups can be eased by having a climax (Peleg, R.). Another examination referenced that a rectal back rub can help in disposing of hiccups (Odeh, M, et al). Other elective techniques incorporate tapping or scouring the rear of one's neck, jabbing the rear of the throat with a Q-tip, and diverting yourself with something captivating ("How to Get Rid of Hiccups: 26 Remedies That Can Actually Help"). The last one is even a respected convention in specific nations. Hiccups can be an irritation, particularly on the off chance that they transform into an interminable condition. Fortunately, there are numerous moves we can make to clear up this issue: you can finish breathing and stance procedures, utilize pressure focuses, eat and drink specific substances, and utilize some elective cures. It is ideal to discover what works best for you out of the numerous decisions talked about in this exposition, as each body is unique. Works Cited "The most effective method to Get Rid of Hiccups: 26 Remedies That Can Actually Help." Healthline, Healthline Media, of-hiccups#other-cures. Nordqvist, Christian. "Hiccups: How to Get Rid of Hiccups." Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 20 June 2017,

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