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The epidemiological transitions described in the article by Armelagos

In at least 150 words, discuss the epidemiological transitions described in the article by Armelagos et al. How and when did these transitions occur? What diseases proliferated during these transitions? How does inequality figure into these transitions?

Sample Solution

ound flawed because it doesn't adequately explain why a person would care about someone else's happiness over their own. However, according to Mill, people are still apt to be moral even if the moral path doesn't make them happy because of internal sanctions. These sanctions ensure a person fulfills his or her utilitarian duty, which is essentially ensuring decisions made about actions cause the least amount of suffering for the smallest amount of people. These sanctions generally show themselves in a person as guilt or other forms of mentally internal pain. For Mill and utilitarianism, sanctions are inevitable if you don't abide by the philosophy's rules. As guilt is often a painful enough reason not to do something, a person does not choose happiness over duty. As far as happiness goes, Kant also had his own ideas about what causes happiness. He didn't believe morality should be based on happiness, because sometimes the most moral action (doing your duty) can make you very unhappy. In fact sometimes, the happiness someone receives from your duty does not outweigh your unhappiness. Kant did not express a belief the utilitarian theory of happiness and chose instead to analyze different types of happiness and the kind of happiness fulfilling your duty brings. Kant believed in the concept of the natural good which is basically happiness. His argument was that you can't reason your way to happiness-and if you could, you would and would always be happy. Thus because you can't, happiness must be the natural good. On the other hand, Kant also believed one couldn't blame the rational soul for unhappiness. After all, a person's job in life is not to use reason to get out of suffering, but rather simply to use reason, period. This explanation of the natural good is important because the natural good is very different from the previously discussed moral good. The natural good is happiness whereas the moral good is good will. Kant explained that part of a person's duty is to ensure the continuation of one's life. In other words suicide is immoral. For the most part, simply staying alive has no moral value, except in the case of the individual who wants to die but continues to live without enjoying it. In that individual's case, maintaining life is a moral action. The issue of life, death and suicide is very closely tied into the idea of duty. When a person is considering suicide, Kant implies that a rational person would consider their own morals and whether or not these morals can be applied to all aspects of nature. Kant would also argue that a person is not a means, but rather an end. As individuals are ends in themselves, suicide is inherently immoral. Additionally, Kant argues that when you rationalize that you love yourself and are killing yourself out of that love, your rationalization, in that instance, is contradictory. Essentially, there is no situation where intended suicide is moral. John Stuart Mills has a different view of suicide-it's still immoral in most situations, however, immoral in a different manner. Mills promotes the idea of the greatest happiness principle, which means that even if your happiness is sacrificed you still need to live. The reality is, that if you were to kill yourself it would cause so much pain to so many people that any happiness you theoretically would have is counteracted by the sorrow of others. Of course, the topic o

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