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“The Police are Still Out of Control”

After reading the article “The Police are Still Out of Control” and chapter 7, in an essay format, explain what is meant by the statement “Police cannot police themselves” and how independent boards can address this concept. Discuss in terms of strategies to support this notion. For example, why are permanent shift and area assignments important in community policing?

Sample Solution

By materiality we can understand historical objects and landmarks, production, industries, city environment and infrastructure. Practices – events, daily routines, activities at the place. Representations – a range of narratives, stories, toponims, logos and visual attributes of the place. Institutions – planning, authorities, investment, social norms and values, brand values. This model, though represents all of the aspects of place, is static and does not take into consideration time issues in place branding. However, it is mentioned, that “place associations are interactive and they constantly change as the place brand is experienced” (Kavaratzis and Kalandides, 2015, p. 1375). This constant change appears, apparently, with time. However, it is not evident, how long and continuous this time period can be. A relevant research question could deal with investigating the influence of time on the mentioned above aspects of place brands. Thus, this conceptual model needs to be to be converted into a dynamic domain. In place branding the idea of time can be mentioned indirectly. For example, brand valuation is defined as the calculation of future incomes from the brand over a particular period of time – lifespan converted to present value (Forbes, 2006). However, there is an evident research gap in the existing literature in terms of considering time as a category, which is relevant to place branding. Time and place Time has always been a matter of interest for researchers in different fields of study since the ancient periods. The concept of time and various approaches to understanding and explaining its nature have been scrutinised in philosophy, physics, literature, arts, urban studies, management, economics and a large number of fields. Meanwhile, there is a logical question, that can be addressed in this context. If time has been studied in approaches dealing with spaces and spatial characteristics of the social world, how the issue of time is connected with place brands? In place marketing and branding the term used for defining spatial characteristics of cities, regions and countries is usually put as “place”. However, in philosophy this category is describes as “place” or “spac

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