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Does Luban see any problems with the way that Fuller’s eight virtues direct professional ethics? In describing the lawyer of character as ‘the lawyer-statesman,’ does Kronman suggest that the good lawyer must necessarily be involved in politics? If not, what is the connection between law and politics that, according to Kronman, makes the description ‘lawyer-statesman’ an appropriate one? According to Kronman, what is the virtue that is central to being a good lawyer? Why? How is that needed, or developed, in legal practice? What are Mortensen’s concerns about ‘the ethics of care? About the ‘lawyer as a friend?’
ally, Biodentine is present as a capsule containing the ideal ratio of powder and liquid. The liquid contains calcium chloride which acts as an accelerator, hydro soluble polymer functions as water reducing agent and water. The powder contains Tricalcium silicate (3CaO.SiO2) (main core material), Dicalcium silicate (2CaO.SiO2) (second core material), Calcium carbonate (CaCO2) (filler), Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2) (radio-opacifier) and Iron oxide (coloring agent) (Table 1). 2.1.b. MTA (Mineral Trioxide Aggregate) It is the Mechanical mixture of three powder ingredients: Portland cement (75%), bismuth oxide (20%) and gypsum (5%). It consists of calcium oxide (50-75%) and silicon oxide (15-20%) which together constitute 70-95% of the cement. Tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, tetracalcium aluminoferrite are produced upon mixing (Table1). There are grey and white MTA due to the presence of iron that forms the tetracalciumalumino-ferrite phase. 2.2- Setting reaction: 2.2.a. Biodentine: Calcium silicate particles form a high pH solution when reacting with water. This solution contains Ca2+, OH- and silicate ions. The hydration of the tricalcium silicate leads to the formation of a hydrated calcium silicate gel on the cement particles and calcium hydroxide nucleates. With the passage of time, calcium silicate hydrated gel polymerizes to form a solid network and the alkalinity of the surrounding medium increases due to the release of calcium hydroxide ions. Further the hydrated calcium silicate gel surrounds the unreacted tricalcium silicate particles and due to its relatively impermeable nature to water, it helps in slowing down the effects of further reactions. 2(3CaO.SiO2) + 6H2O→ 3CaO.2SiO2.3H2O + 3Ca(OH)2 2.2.b. MTA: Hydration reaction between tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate to form a calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate gel producing an alkaline pH. A further reaction between tricalcium aluminate and calcium phosphate forms a high-sulphate calcium sulphoaluminate. The calcium ions leach through the dentinal tubules and the concentration increases with time as the material cures. 2.3- Setting time: Biodentine has a short setting time because of the presence of an accelerator (Calcium Chloride) (Table 2). 2.4- Density and Porosity: They are the critical factors that determines the amount of leakage and outcome of the treatment. The greater the pores’ diameter the more the leakage. Biodentine exhibits lower porosity than MTA (Table 1). 2.5- Compressive strength: During the setting of Biodentine, the compressive strength increases 100 MPa in the first hour and 200 MPa at 24th hour and it continues to improve with time over several days until reaching 300 MPa after one month. A study done by Grech et al., showed that Biodentine had the highest compressive strength when compared to other tested materials due to low water/cement ratio used in Biodentine.
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