Please answer the following questions. (Five points each).
1. What is the meaning of bio-activation and detoxification of the same chemical?
2. What are the basic functions of the liver?
3. List the characteristics of organochloride pesticides.
4. Some pesticides cause inactivation of acetylcholinesterase. What symptoms might this cause? Why?
5. What is a neurotransmitter? Give an example.
6. What is enterohepatic circulation?
7. What are the major toxic effects of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides? Which one are more toxic organophosphates or carbamates? Why?
8. Why are herbicides, such as chlorophenoxy compounds, toxic to humans?
9. How does warfarin, a rodenticide, cause toxicity?
10. What initiates a nerve impulse transmission?
11. What is the mucociliary clearance mechanism?
12. What is the lung clearance mechanism?
13. What is a nephrotoxin?
14. What cells are more susceptible to air pollutants in the gas exchange area; in the conducting airways? Why?
15. How does particle matter causes toxic effects to the lungs?
16. What part of the respiratory tract is most affected by SO2? Why?
17. How does cigarette smoke increase the chances of pulmonary infections?
18. What defense mechanism the gas exchange area has?
19. What is emphysema?
20. What is pneumoconiosis?
21. Why are the kidneys so susceptible to toxic agents?
22. What is the major function of the nephron tubules?
23. What is an antidiuretic?
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