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Travis Hirschi developed his social control theory

If two siblings of the family grow up in the same household and turn out completely differently—one attends college and becomes a successful professional, while the other becomes a career criminal—can the environment still be held responsible for the deviance of the criminal?
How could social control, social learning, and rational theories be utilized to explain how these two siblings developed in opposite ways?
What factors would differential association theorists focus on while explaining the differences between the lives of the two siblings? Why?
Travis Hirschi developed his social control theory on the basis of bonding towards society. Which of the four elements of this bond—attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief—has been more important than the others in your own opinion? Please provide supporting references.

Sample Solution

Linking us to intertextuality (Bakhtin 1981 [1935]; Kristeva, 1986) which suggests the language we use and the way we use it is all linked back to earlier language use and texts, presupposition being one aspect of intertextuality. However, it is not just words in texts that can reveal ideological objectives, one approach is indexical, this also points to a social meaning associated with specific objects or phenomenon (for example suits often point to power). Another approach is multimodality, this pays particular attention to the different modes used in communication such as images, colour, and shape, and even material (for example certain colours can be used in political propaganda to draw the eye, to contrast between two sides to make that visual impact). Jowett and O’Donnell (2006) have negativity towards propaganda as they believe that as a result propaganda can often be misleading and manipulating to the audience. The last approach we will touch upon is aesthetics, the study of beauty and valuation, particularly when it comes to ‘art’. ‘Taste’ is subject to variation from person to person and is very much a social phenomenon; particular ‘preferences’ often reflect our own ethical and moral values. Previously, we mentioned that the audience is becoming more involved in production as well as being a consumer; Fairclough et Chouliaraki (1999, p. 95) suggest that the public are paying more consideration to discourse both in production of discourse (buying, selling, persuading etc) as well as in the production of the self (how we dress, talk etc.) they call this the ‘heightened reflexivity’. Here we have creativity and language in the concept of globalisation through two examples, call centres and hip hop. Hip hop is a good example of creativity in globalisation as its practices are being exported through global media (for example, YouTube, music channels on the television, radio etc) and ‘hip hoppers’ eac

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