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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

The relevant sections in the text are given after each problem number.
Instructions: Do problems 1; 2; 3 or 4 (but not both); 5 or 6 (but not both); 7; 8; 9 or 10 (but not both) for a total of 7 problems. Use the problem numbers given below on your submission (preferably a single file or, if not possible, a small number of files).
All work must be clearly shown (when there are calculations) for credit. If you used a Free Web App or other software system, indicate so, its name and what the inputs were.

1) 7.1
According to the February 2008 Federal Trade Commission report on consumer fraud and identity theft, 23% of all complaints in 2007 were for identity theft. In that year, Alaska had 321 complaints of identity theft out of 1,432 consumer complaints (“Consumer fraud and,” 2008). The overall concern is to determine if these data provide enough evidence to show that Alaska had a lower proportion of identity theft than 23%. For this problem, just state the random variable, the sample size, the population parameter, and the hypotheses.

2) 7.1
As in Problem 1, according to the February 2008 Federal Trade Commission report on consumer fraud and identity theft, 23% of all complaints in 2007 were for identity theft. In that year, Alaska had 321 complaints of identity theft out of 1,432 consumer complaints. The overall concern is to determine if these data provide enough evidence to show that Alaska had a lower proportion of identity theft than 23% For this situation, state the Type I and Type II errors, consequences of each error type, and an appropriate Significance Level (alpha) to use. Explain your answers.

3) 7.2
As in Problem 1, according to the February 2008 Federal Trade Commission report on consumer fraud and identity theft, 23% of all complaints in 2007 were for identity theft. In that year, Alaska had 321 complaints of identity theft out of 1,432 consumer complaints. Do these data provide enough evidence to show that Alaska had a lower proportion of identity theft than 23%? Test at the 5% level.

4) 7.2
In 2008, there were 507 children in Arizona out of 32,601 who were diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (“Autism and developmental,” 2008). Nationally 1 in 88 children are diagnosed with ASD (“CDC features -,” 2013). Is there sufficient data to show that there are more incidents of ASD in Arizona than nationally? Test at the 1% level.
5) 7.3
The economic dynamism, which is the index of productive growth in dollars for countries that are designated by the World Bank as middle-income are in table #7.3.8 (“SOCR data 2008,” 2013). Countries that are considered high-income have a mean economic dynamism of 60.29. Do the data show that the mean economic dynamism of middle-income countries is less than the mean for high-income countries? Test at the 5% level.

        Table #7.3.8: Economic Dynamism of Middle Income Countries

25.8057 37.4511 51.915 43.6952 47.8506 43.7178 58.0767
41.1648 38.0793 37.7251 39.6553 42.0265 48.6159 43.8555
49.1361 61.9281 41.9543 44.9346 46.0521 48.3652 43.6252
50.9866 59.1724 39.6282 33.6074 21.6643

6) 7.3
Maintaining your balance may get harder as you grow older. A study was conducted to see how steady the elderly is on their feet. They had the subjects stand on a force platform and have them react to a noise. The force platform then measured how much they swayed forward and backward, and the data is in table #7.3.10 (“Maintaining balance while,” 2013). Do the data show that the elderly sway more than the mean forward sway of younger people, which is 18.125 mm? Test at the 5% level.

  Table #7.3.10: Forward/backward Sway (in mm) of Elderly Subjects

19 30 20 19 29 25 21 24 50

7) 8.1
Suppose you compute a confidence interval with a sample size of 100. What will happen to the confidence interval if the sample size decreases to 80?

8) 8.1
In 2013, Gallup conducted a poll and found a 95% confidence interval of the proportion of Americans who believe it is the government’s responsibility for health care. Give the statistical interpretation.

9) 8.2
In 2008, there were 507 children in Arizona out of 32,601 who were diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (“Autism and developmental,” 2008 – same information as for Problem 4) above). Find the proportion of ASD in Arizona with a confidence level of 99%.

10) 8.3
The economic dynamism, which is the index of productive growth in dollars for countries that are designated by the World Bank as middle-income are in table #8.3.9 (“SOCR data 2008,” 2013 – same information as for Problem 5) above). Compute a 95% confidence interval for the mean economic dynamism of these middle-income countries.

Table #8.3.9: Economic Dynamism ($) of Middle Income Countries
25.8057 37.4511 51.915 43.6952 47.8506 43.7178 58.0767
41.1648 38.0793 37.7251 39.6553 42.0265 48.6159 43.8555
49.1361 61.9281 41.9543 44.9346 46.0521 48.3652 43.6252
50.9866 59.1724 39.6282 33.6074 21.6643

Sample Solution

lue is the only legitimate measure of corporate success’ (2000, p. 134), but propose that a combination of Theory E and Theory O is the most effective option (The Open University 2018). As shown in Figure 2, the till replacement OCM model now involves focusing on Economic and human aspects which was missing in the Pettigrew and Whipp (1993) model. The till replacement change, via this model, now looks at the goal from top level and enables one to weigh the Economic benefit i.e. shareholder return Vs Operational capability pursuit. This shows the range of results for the decision makers and the directors to decide and find the “right” balance to deliver the result for which the whole change has been started from the onset. The same also applies to leadership category where a store manager would be expected to lead and deliver it single handedly the project but there are only a finite number of hours a store manager can work through so there is a clear need for identifying key colleagues in team and empowering them be part of the change at each store level. Sturdy and Grey (2003), in their article, also critique this model. I agree with the authors’ view that this model does try to move away from the pro-change bias to a certain extent as it shows the range and extent for organisation to gauge Shareholder Vs Stakeholder concerns. However, in adopting this model it promotes managerialism and the power and politics both shifts towards the decision makers. To avoid or atleast demonstrate the how much biased the combined E/O Theory is probably a modification to the model with addition of a 4th column with option to highlight which side the combined E/O Theory is more biased as highlighted in Figure 3. If the information is presented in such a format then it will ensure that in case of biased combined approach, the result is clearly visible. Dimension of Change Theory E (Hard) Theory O (Soft) Combined E & O Final Action more E or O (suggested modification) Goals Maximise Shareholder Value Develop organisational capabilities Embrace the paradox of the two E Leadership Manage Change from top to down Encourage participation from all colleagues Initiate from top and engage O Focus Emphasise system and service routine Improve employees’ behavior/attitude Focus simultaneously on both E Process Establish clear timelines and checkpoints Trial and Error – see what works best Pan for spontaneity E Reward System Motivate through financial incentive Motivate through commitment Incentive to reinforce Vs Drive E/O Use of Consultants Consultants analyse data regularly/solutions Consultant support management with reactive problems Use as empowering experts E Figure 3: Modification suggestion to Beer & Nohria’s Theory E and Theory (2000) Being part of a PLC organisation, I feel that the shareholder return needs to be factored in whilst pursuing an organisational change as it remains a key in this fast and volatile market with the uncertainty around Brexit leading to failure of even multiple giant high store brands such as Toys R Us, HMV, BHS etc. Hence, understanding the range and risks involved is key before making a balanced decision to act upon. Summary and Reflection Organisational change management, being so frequent in the present highly competitive and continuously evolving business environment, has become so critical to get right that it can shape the future any organisation and hence it’s success is key even though as per Sturdy and Grey (2003) nearly 66% of the changes fail to deliver the desired outcome. The essay has talked about my view on the Pettigrew and Whipp (1993) model utilising the critique by Sturdy and Grey (2003). Mapping this with my organisational change example it further emphasised the need to critically evaluate the OCM models as the Pettigrew and Whipp (1993) model didn’t cover all required aspects for OCM and had weaknesses within which prompted to approach and utilise another model that of Beer and Nohria (2000). However, once again even though the latter addresses weaknesses of the first model it still doesn’t provide the solution in it’s entirety and there is still a need for further review and tweaks to ensure right approach and action is taken rather than fixing the organisation change reactively. Having gone through the history of management theories and Organisational change, it is fascinating to see the amount of work that has been put into this key style. Yet, there are no “perfect” models or even “chosen few” methods which can be cascaded and followed through. This re-emphasises the need for diversity in management approach as organisations and individuals vary and the industry has evolved from not just a manufacturing one but also service including virtual organisations (Franks, 1998). Having also reviewed the recent change within the organisation that I’ve discussed in this essay using multiple OCM models has been revolutionary in itself too as it has enabled me to think wider and look at the change not just as another task or another routine change but one that delivers sustain
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